Agricultural Revolutions In Details
- A package programme adopted in India to increase the production of milk is known as White Revolution. (Agricultural Revolutions)
- White revolution in India was started in 1970, when the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) was established to organize dairy development through co-operative societies.
- Dairy development through co-operative societies was first established in the state of Gujarat.
- The co-operative societies are owned and managed by the rural milk producers. The cooperatives, apart from financial help also provide consultancy.
- These co-operative societies were most successful in the Anand district of Gujarat.
- After 1970 the Anand Model was replicated in other districts and states of the country.
- In 1970, the National Dairy Development Board started the Operation Flood which is considered to be the largest dairy development programme in the world.
- The main objective of these cooperative societies is the procurement, storage and transport of milk. (Agricultural Revolutions)
- Production of a wide varieties of milk products and their marketing management.
- The societies also provide superior breeds of cattle, health service, artificial insemination and veterinary treatment.
Phase of the White Revolution
- Phase I (1970-1981) : During this period, the dairy development programme was set up in ten states to provide milk to the cosmopolitan cities (Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, etc.) The Dairy co-operative societies were set up in 1300 villages with a membership of 15 lakhs.
- Phase II (1981-85) : During this phase the dairy development programme was extended to the states of Karnataka, M.P. and Rajasthan. The Dairy Co-operative Societies were set up in 35,000 villages and the membership exceeded 36 lakhs.
- Phase III (1985-2000) : The number of cooperative societies went up by 73000 with a membership of 10 million. (Agricultural Revolutions)
Problems and Prospects
- Collection of milk from remote areas and small dairy farmer is quite expensive.
- Unhygienic production.
- • Inadequate marketing facilities.
- Inferior breeds of cattle. (Agricultural Revolutions)
- Blue revolution means the adoption of a package programme to increase the production of fish, etc. (Agricultural Revolutions)
- The Blue Revolution in India was started during the 5th Five Year Plan (1970) when the Central Government sponsored the Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDA).
- Subsequently, the Brackish Water Fish Farms Development Agencies were set up to develop aquaculture.(Agricultural Revolutions)
- As a result of Blue Revolution the production of fish has gone up form 6 lakh tones in 1950 to 10 million tonnes at present.
- The fresh water fish has also gone up five times after the Blue Revolution.
- To enhance the production of fish now biofertilizers and processed organic wastes are being applied in ponds, lakes, backwaters, rivers and coastal lakes.
- Inadequate information about the environment (temperature, etc.) of sea, lakes, water bodies.
- Unpredictable nature of Monsoon.
- Inadequacy of research facilities.
- Problems of marketing, storage and transportation.
- Pollution in water bodies, river, lakes, ponds and coastal seas.
- Continuing expansion of farming areas;
- Double-cropping in the existing farmland; and
- Using seeds with improved genetics.
- This established India as one of the world’s biggest agricultural producers.
- India became an exporter of various food grains around that time.
- • Growth of local manufacturing units to produce more fertilizers, pesticides and other chemicals. (Agricultural Revolutions)
- Construction of dams boosted industrial growth, created jobs and improved the quality of life of the people in villages.
- India paid back loans it had taken from the World Bank and its affiliates. This improved India’s creditworthiness in the eyes of the lending agencies.
- Developed countries, especially Canada, asked the Indian government to supply them with farmers, experienced in the methods of the Green Revolution. These people remitted part of their incomes India.
This added, albeit modestly, to India’s foreign exchange earnings.
- There was creation of massive employment opportunities.
- Sluggish increase in Productivity: There are signs of stagnation in the increase of productivity in major foodgrain, despite enhanced application of inputs.
- Partial Revolution :
GR remained confined to only a few crops, the productivity of coarse grains like Bajra, millets, maize and pulses has declined. (Agricultural Revolutions)
- High cost of cultivation: The cost of cultivation including fertilizer consumption, the consumption of pesticides, cost of irrigation has gone up many fold.
- Regional Disparity: Green revolution being the activity of pro rich farmess confined only to the economically developed states within a region.
- Environment Deterioration: The user of fertilizers and pesticides have polluted both surface water and groundwater sources. Erection of dams have created inundation of forests and monuments, increased susceptibility to earthquakes.
List of other agricultural revolutions
Black Revolution- Petroleum production
Golden Fiber Revolution- Jute production
Grey Revolution- Fertilizer production
Pink Revolution- Meat & Poultry
Red Revolution- Tomato production
Round Revolution- Potato production
Silver Fiber Revolution- Cotton production
Silver Revolution- Egg/Poultry production
White Revolution- Milk/Dairy production (In India – Operation Flood)
Yellow Revolution- Oil Seeds production
Evergreen Revolution- Overall development of Agriculture
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