The use of improved implements in agriculture is increasing day-to-day, hence it has gone essential to know the maintenance of implements, method of use etc. to the farmers. The study of implements and tools related to agriculture is the objective of agricultural engineering. Agricultural engineering as defined by international institutions, comprises four main branches, mainly—
(a) Farm implements and power,
(b) Rural electricity,
(c) Soil conservation, drainage and irrigation, and
(d) Rural structures.
In recent years, agricultural engineering has contributed considerably to agricultural production in the country both directly and indirectly. The number of modern machines used in agriculture is a fairly good index of the progress made during the Five Year Plans. Roughly about one lac tractors, power fillers, garden tractors are in use in Indian agriculture. Generally, agricultural implements and tools are classified in two categories, namely—(Agriculture Engineering)
(i) Implements driven by the farmers themselves, viz., Khurpi, spade, kassi, hand-hoe, kodali etc., and
(ii) Implements driven by cattle, diesel engine or required power of tractor, e.g., plough, harrow, cultivator etc.
The most useful implement is deshi plough, out of the agricultural implements and is drawn by the bullocks/he-buffalo. It is used by the farmers for field preparation, digging to soil and to pulverize it before seed sowing. The ploughs are also driven by tractor. Thus, these ploughs are of two types. Deshi plough makes ‘V’-type of furrows and between two furrows, the unturned soil is left. Thus, cross ploughing (+) of the field is essential through deshi plough. To overcome this defect of deshi plough, soil turning plough is used.
Material Used in Manufacturing Agricultural Implements
Following materials are being used in agricultural implements—
(A) Non-metallic Materials Like; wood, rubber, plastic, leather etc.
(1) Wood—Generally neem, babool, sagon, sheesham, bamboo, mahua woods etc. are being used in different implements/tools, e.g., sheesham wood in planker (Patela), sagon/sheesham wood in plough’s beam, bamboo wood in Chonga (nai), babool wood in plough-yoke. etc.
(2) Rubber—It is used in agricultural tools like; trauly, bullock-carts tyre tube, washer belts etc.
(3) Plastic—It is being used in tubes of seeddrills, sprayers etc.
(4) Leather—Used in washers, charsa of irrigation, swing basket (bedi) and belts.
(B) Metallic Materials
(1) Iron—These are of various types like—
(i) Cast-iron—Having 2·2-4·3% carbon and 1-3·5% silicon, and also Mn, S and P contents. It is used in chaff-cutter, cane-crusher, shares of small ploughs, mould board ploughs and frog manufacturing. It has 5 kinds—White cast-iron (2-4% carbon); Gray cast-iron (3-4% carbon), Mottled cast-iron, Malleable cast-iron and Chilled cast-iron.(Agriculture Engineering)
(ii) Wrought-iron—It is pure iron, having 0·05-0·10% carbon and used in rods, bolts, plates, wires, chains, hammers etc. Such iron is fibrous, highly elastic, easily turn in quality.
(iii) Steel—It is mid-type of cast and wrought iron, besides hard, 0·15-0·5% carbon. Generally steels are of 4 types like; Dead Mild Steel (carbon below 0·15%)—For sheets and wires making; Mild Steel—0·15 to 0·5% carbon—for rods, plates, wires etc. manufacturing; Medium Carbon Steel—0·3-0·8% carbon—used in springs, handles, nut-bolts etc. and High Carbon Steel—0·8-1·5% carbon—used in tynes, drills, shear blades, screws, dies, planer etc.
(iv) Soft Centre Steel—High carbon steel layers are kept on both sides over a soft layer, e.g., plough bottom and shares of cultivator. Alloy Steel—In this group, apart from iron and carbon, sulphur, phosphorus, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, banadium etc. are also mixed in various ratios. Major alloy steels are—
(i) Nickel Steel—Used in sheets, pipes, shafts, electric wires, micro measuring tools etc.
(ii) Chromium Steel—Mainly used in balls, bearings, tynes, hammers, files etc.
(iii) Tungsten Steel—Used in fast speed running tools, cutters and dies.
(iv) Boron Steel—Used in shafts, cap screw, stud etc.
(v) Manganese Steel—Cranks and connecting rods are made-up of such steel. Alloy—Materials having properties of metallic and made-up of two or more than two chemical elements like; brass (Cu + Zn), bronze (Cu + Fe), magnesium (Cu + Ni + Lead) etc. Non-ferrous Metals—None effect of magnate on the metals like, Cu, Zn, tin, Mg, Al, bronze etc. Tillage The word tillage is referred to ‘To-Till’, meaning thereby to make soil easy for proper sowing, germination/growth of crops/plants through cutting/earthing/turning or scrapping the soil. It includes the agricultural processes like; ploughing, harrowing, cultivating, planking, rolling, earthing, weeding, interculture etc.(Agriculture Engineering)
Types of Tillage
(i) Primary Tillage—Mechanical operations performed before seed sowing in field.
(ii) Secondary Tillage—All the operations done from seed sowing to crop harvest, likemoisture conservation operations, inter-culture operations, breaking hard crust formed due to irrigation or rains in the soil. Modern Concept of Tillage Farmers have their own opinion that more the field ploughings higher the crop yields since long, but today it is not true. Agricultural researches conducted on tillage show that if weeds are controlled chemically, then hardly 1-2 ploughings are required to tilth soil. Thus, according to the modern concept ‘Minimum or Zero tillage concept’ has been developed. Here, zero tillage means not for zero but near to zero, say; minimum tillage. Surely, zero tillage in terms of changes in the cost structure, returns and resource use efficiency, cost saving (25% atleast) is better than conventional tillage.
Agricultural Implements There are three types of ploughs, used in ploughing, viz.,
(i) Deshi plough,
(ii) Soil turning ploughs and
(iii) Disc ploughs.(Agriculture Engineering)
(i) Deshi plough—It cuts the soil in ‘V’-type, having 10 kg weight, 80 kg total draft; working efficiency—0·33 ha/day; and furrow cut size—10 × 8 cm. All parts are made-up of wooden, except share (high carbon/mild steel).
(ii) Soil turning ploughs—The mould board present in ploughs turns the soil. These ploughs are of two types— (a) One handled plough—e.g., Meston, Praja, Wah-Wah, Gurjar, Shabash ploughs, Care plough. (b) Double handled ploughs—e.g., Punjab, Victory ploughs, Turn-wrest plough, U. P. No. 1 plough, U. P. No. 2 plough. Harrow—These are used as secondary tillage implements. The
types of harrows are—
(1) Disc harrow,
(2) Drag harrows—(i) Spike tooth harrow, (ii) Spring tyne harrow, (iii) Peg harrow or triangular harrow,
(3) Blade harrow (or Bakhars),
(4) Rajasthan harrow,
(5) Chain harrow. Disc harrow—(i) Single disc harrow, (ii) Double action disc harrow, (iii) Offset harrow. Hoe—(i) Singh hand-hoe, (ii) Sharma handhoe, (iii) Akola hoe, (iv) Paddy weeder, (v) Wheel hand-hoe, (vi) Rake. Cultivators—Mainly used in secondary tillage. These are classified as—(Agriculture Engineering)
(A) Based on farm Power—
(i) Hand operated cultivator, (ii) Animal operated cultivator and (iii) Tractor drawn cultivator.
(B) Based on Structure—
(i) Shovel cultivator,
(ii) Disc cultivator and
(iii) Surface cultivator.
Cultivators used in U. P.—
(i) Mecormic cultivator, (ii) Kanpur cultivator, (iii) Shabash cultivator, (iv) Wah-Wah cultivator, (v) R. N. cultivator.
Human Operated Interculture Implements —
(i) Khurpi, (ii) Spade, (iii) Kodali, (iv) Naini type hand-hoe, (v) Singh hand-hoe, (vi) Sharma hand-hoe, (vii) Wheel hoe, (viii) Akola hoe, (ix) Paddy weeder.
Planker is made-up of wooden logs, having life—10 years, length—3 metre (drawn by 2 pairs of bullocks) and 1·5 to 2·0 metre (by one pair of bullock). Roller—Used in areas of dry farming and made-up of wooden and stone or concrete width of roller—3 metre. Scraper—Used as soil-leveller and made-up of 3 mm thick steel-sheet.
Implements of Seed Sowing—
(i) Deshi plough—0·33 ha/day efficiency, (ii) Cultivators—Efficiency 0·8 ha per day, (iii) Dibbler— Efficiency 0·1 ha/day, (iv) Seed-drill—Efficiency 1·8 ha per day.
Seed-drills—Seed-drills may be classified as—
(a) According to Power used—(i) Hand operated (manual) machine, (ii) Animal drawn machine and (iii) Tractor drawn machine.
(b) According to seed-dropping Method— (i) Feed cup, (ii) Fluted Roller Feed, (iii) Double Run Force Feed, (iv) Variable Orifice Type.
Crop Harvesting Machines—
Generally crops are harvested by machines and sickles. Under machines, mowers are used; drawn by animals and tractor drawn—trailed, semi-mounted and mounted type.
Threshing and Winnowing Machines :
Threshing—Harvested crops are generally threshed by three means, viz., (i) Threshing by beating through woods, (ii) By bullocks and (iii) Olpad thresher—Efficiency one acre harvested crop in 4 days—one pair of bullock and one man used. On large farms, combines are used for threshing the crops.
Winnowing—Winnowing fans are generally used.
Blacksmithy Tools—(1) Smith’s forge, (2) Anvil, (3) Poker, (4) Tongs, (5) Punches, (6) Sledges, (7) Files, (8) Vice, (9) Plier, (10) Bick iron, (11) Working table, (12) Hack saws, (13) Chisels, (14) Hammers, (15) Cutting tools, (16) Swage block.(Agriculture Engineering)
(i) Marking and Measuring Tools—(1) Try square, (2) Mitre square, (3) Spirit level, (4) Marking guage, (5) Marking knife, (6) Tape, (7) Compasses, (8) Bevel square.
(ii) Toothed Edge Cutting Tools—(1) Rip saw, (2) Key hole saw, (3) Bow saw, (4) Country made saw, (5) Tenon saw, (6) Compass saw, (7) Dovetail saw, (8) Freat saw machine.
(iii) Pairing Tools—(1) Adze, (2) Curve Adze, (3) Chisels.
(iv) Planning Tools—(1) Jack plane, (2) Iron plane, (3) Compass plane, (4) Trying plane, (5) Toothing-plane (6) Rebate-plane.
(v) Rasping Tools—(1) Files, (2) Flate file, (3) Half-round file, (4) Triangular file, (5) Square file, (6) Round-file, (7) Needle file and (8) Wood rasp file.
(vi) Striking Tools—(1) Mallet, (2) Cross Peen Hammer, (3) Nail Punch.
(vii) Boring Tools—(1) Brace machine, (2) Centre bit, (3) Auger bit, (4) Twist bit, (5) Auger, (6) Ordinary drill.
(viii) Holding Tools—(1) Bar cramp, (2) Hand screw, (3) Bench vice.
(ix) Driving Tools—(1) Claw hammer, (2) Pinch, (3) Nail puller, (4) Screw driver.
(x) Supporting Tools—(1) Bench hook, (2) Pin board, (3) Working Bench/table.(Agriculture Engineering)
(i) Hydraulic sprayer—bash
(a) High pressure and high volume sprayer,
(b) Low pressure and low volume sprayer.
(ii) Hydropneumatic sprayer,
(iii) Blower sprayer and
(iv) Aeroplane sprayer.
(i) Hand duster,
(ii) Power duster,
(iii) Aeroplane duster.
Sources of Agriculture Power—
(i) Human power,
(ii) Animal power,
(iii) Mechanical power,
(iv) Electric power,
(v) Wind power,
(vi) Hydraulic power.
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