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Agriculture and Rural Development Pdf for NABARD, JRF, SRF, ARS, SET, Phd, ASRB, IRMA, UPSC, Cooperative Bank

Agriculture and Rural Development Pdf for NABARD, JRF, SRF, ARS, SET, Phd, ASRB, IRMA, UPSC, Cooperative Bank

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 Agriculture and Rural Development Pdf for NABARD, JRF, SRF, ARS, SET, Phd, ASRB, IRMA, UPSC, Cooperative Bank

Important For NABARD, JRF, SRF, ARS, SET, Phd, ASRB, IRMA

Contents

Agriculture: definition, meaning and its branches…………………… 5

Definition …………………………………………………………………………… 5

Contribution of Agriculture in Indian Economy……………………… 5

Revolutions in Agriculture …………………………………………………… 6

Production Data: 2016-17 …………………………………………………….. 6

Branches of Agriculture ……………………………………………………….. 7

Agronomy …………………………………………………………………………… 8

Scope of Agronomy ………………………………………………………………. 9

Classification of field crops …………………………………………………… 11

Based on Ontogeny (Life cycle) ……………………………………………… 11

Based on economic use (Agronomic) ……………………………………… 12

Scientific or botanical classification ……………………………………….. 15

Based on seasons …………………………………………………………………. 16

Crops are grouped under the seasons in which their major field duration falls….. 16

Based on climatic condition ………………………………………………….. 16

Based on mode of pollination ………………………………………………… 16

Factors affecting on crop production …………………………………….. 20

Internal Factors (Genetic/Heredity factors) …………………………… 20

External factors …………………………………………………………………… 21

A. Climatic factors ……………………………………………………………….. 21

B. Edaphic Factors (Soil) ………………………………………………………. 23

C. Biotic Factors …………………………………………………………………… 25

D. Physiographic factors………………………………………………………… 26

E. Socio-economic factors ……………………………………………………… 26

Agro-climatic zones ………………………………………………………………. 26

Objectives of Identifying Agro-Climatic Zones ………………………….. 27

Planning of Agro climatic zones of India ………………………………….. 27

Agro-climatic regions by the Planning Commission ………………….. 28

Agro-climatic zones under National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34

Agro-ecological regions by the National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning (NBSS & LUP) ………………………………………………………………………………….. 35

Cropping seasons in India…………………………………………………………… 37

Cropping Pattern and Cropping Systems ……………………………………… 40

Determining factors of cropping system ……………………………………….. 41

Types of cropping systems……………………………………………………………. 42

Mono Cropping……………………………………………………………………………. 42

Intensive Cropping……………………………………………………………………….. 42

Multiple cropping…………………………………………………………………………. 43

Sequential cropping………………………………………………………………………. 45

Crop Rotation………………………………………………………………………………. 46

Dryland Agriculture……………………………………………………………………….. 46

Significance of dryland agriculture in India………………………………………. 47

Problems of dry land agriculture……………………………………………………… 49

Measures to enhance agricultural production in dryland areas…………….. 50

Seed production, seed processing, seed village……………………………………. 51

Seed Production in India……………………………………………………………………. 52

Breeder Seed…………………………………………………………………………………….. 52

Foundation Seed……………………………………………………………………………….. 52

Certified Seed……………………………………………………………………………………. 53

Seed Processing…………………………………………………………………………………. 53

Advantages of seed processing……………………………………………………………. 54

Processing Machines………………………………………………………………………….. 54

Seed Village……………………………………………………………………………………….. 55

Seed Village Scheme……………………………………………………………………………. 56

Meteorology: weather parameters, crop-weather advisory………………………. 56

Meteorology: Definition……………………………………………………………………….. 56

Importance of Meteorology for Crop Production…………………………………….. 57

Meteorology: weather parameters…………………………………………………………. 57

Light…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 59

Air Temperature………………………………………………………………………………….. 59

Soil temperature………………………………………………………………………………….. 60

Humidity…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61

The amount of water vapour that is present in atmosphere is known as atmospheric moisture or hum…………………………………………………………………………………………………61

Crop Weather Advisory…………………………………………………………………………. 62

Precision Farming………………………………………………………………………………… 64

Evolution of Precision Farming……………………………………………………………… 64

Technologies for Precision Farming……………………………………………………….. 69

Benefits of Precision Farming :………………………………………………………………. 72

Scope of Precision farming in India :………………………………………………………. 72

System of Crop Intensification (SCI)………………………………………………………. 73

How System of Crop Intensification Works?…………………………………………… 74

Soil preparation and management…………………………………………………………… 74

Organic Farming……………………………………………………………………………………. 77

Need of organic farming………………………………………………………………………….. 78

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