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Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

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 Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

Plant breeding is an art and science, which tells us ways and means to change the genetic architecture of plants so as to attain a particular objective.

Plant breeding can be accomplished through many different techniques ranging from simply selecting plants with desirable characteristics for propagation, to more complex molecular techniques Plant breeding has been practiced for thousands of years, since near the beginning of human civilization. Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

It is now practiced worldwide by individuals such as gardeners and farmers, or by professional plant breeders employed by organizations such as government institutions, universities, crop-specific industry associations or research centers.

International development agencies believe that breeding new crops is important for ensuring food security by developing new varieties that are higher-yielding, resistant to pests and diseases, drought-resistant or regionally adapted to different environments and growing conditions.

Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

Plant breeding, the past, present and future scopes Indian agriculture remained stagnant particularly during early sixties.

Long spells of severe drought and serious out break of disease in some parts of the country led some futurologists to state that a possible doom in India by the end of the decade.

However, we achieved break through in crops such as rice, wheat, pearlmilelt, jowar and maize. The indica x japonica cross derivative ADT 27 is the first high yielding rice of Tamil Nadu.

The identification of Dee Gee Woo Gen and release of Wonder rice IR 8 (peta x DGWG) changed the scenario from poverty to problem of plenty.

Like wide identification of dwarfing gene in Japanese wheat variety Norin-10 by Borlaug and breeding of Mexican dwarf wheat varieties led to the release of wheat varieties life Kalyan sona in India. Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

In pearl millet, breeding by male sterile line Tift 23A at Tifton, Georgia by Burton and his coworker and later on its introduction to India led the release of hybrid bajra HB1 to HB4, Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

which increased bajra production many fold. In Jowar, breeding of first male sterile line combined kafir 60A and its introduction into India led to the release of first hybrid sorghum CSH 1 (CK 60A x IS 84) during 1970s.

At present we are in search of alternate source of cytoplasm in almost all crops to breed hybrids with new source of cytoplasm to prevent the possibility of appearance of new pest and diseases. Thus, the future of plant breeding is a challenging task. Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

The deployment of innovative breeding techniques will be a new tool to assist the conventional breeding techniques.

Undesirable effects of Plant Breeding

1. Genetic erosion: Disappearance of land races due to introduction of high yielding varieties. Eg. Introduction of IR 20 rice led to disappearance of land races of samba rice. Aims and objectives of Plant Breeding Pdf Download

2. Narrow genetic base: Genetic vulnerability to pest and diseases. Tift 23A – Bajra – Susceptible downy mildew T cytoplasm – Maize – susceptible to Helminthosporium

3. Minor disease and pest become major due to intensive resistance breeding RTV (Rice Tungro Virus)

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