During the period 1987-1997, there was a steady increase in inland fisheries production, registering 45.4% during the ten-year period. Inland production, including farming, is now catching up with production from the marine sector and is likely to overtake marine capture fisheries in the next millennium. Inland production includes catches from rivers, upland lakes, peninsular tanks, reservoirs and oxbow lakes.
The major states contributing in Inland fisheries
• West Bengal (33%),
• Andhra Pradesh (9.09%),
• Bihar (8.71%),
• Assam (6.92%)
• Uttar Pradesh (6.49%),
• Orissa (6.01%),
• Tamil Nadu (4.82%),
• Madhya Pradesh (4.07%),
• Karnataka (3.89%) and
• Maharashtra (3.4%).
Freshwater aquaculture (Inland fisheries)
Inland aquaculture has emerged as a major fish producing system in India, with production currently (1998) around 1.7 million t/yr. Carp accounts for over 80% of farmed fish. Major species cultured are roho (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla), mrigal carp (Cirrhinus mrigala), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), silver carp (Hypothalmitchthys molitrix), catfish (Clariusmbatrachus), singi (Heteropneustes fossilis), rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss), and giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii).
Brackish-water aquaculture (Inland fisheries)
The estimated area of brackish water available for aquaculture is 1.19 million ha. Traditional shrimp farming practices are popular in Kerala,West Bengal and Goa. The yields from this system vary from 300 to 1 000 kg/ha/year. Intensive shrimp farming has become very common in recent years. Because of its high commercial value, giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) is the dominant species in commercial production, although Indian white prawn (Penaeus indicus; around 5% of total production) is also farmed in several places. Shrimp production by farming reached a record value in 1994-95. Subsequently production suffered a set back due to a ban imposed by the Supreme Court of India in response to petition filed by environmentalists pleading that shrimp farming had created several environmental damages. Subsequently, in the last three years many shrimp farms in coastal areas have been closed. Intensive shrimp farming is banned, and only modified, improved traditional and extensive farming are permitted, with a productivity of around 2 to 2.5 t/ha/yr. Aquaculture, particularly shrimp farming, is now regulated and controlled by the Aquaculture Authority of India.
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