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Lec 1: Prelusion-Significance of livestock and poultry in Indian economy-Livestock and Poultry census – role of livestock and poultry in Indian agriculture.

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Livestock farming is an integral part of crop farming and contributes substantially to household nutritional security and poverty alleviation through increased household income.The returns from livestock especially dairying and mixed farming in small and medium holdings are larger and highly sustainable.The progress in this sector results in more balanced development of the rural economy and improvement in economic status of poor people associated with livestock.

Indian agriculture is an economic symbiosis of crop and livestock production with cattle as the foundation.Dairy animals produce milk by converting the crop residues and by products from crops which otherwise would be wasted. Dairy sector contributes by way of cash income, draught power and manure.

Livestock provides for human needs by way of 1. Food 2. fibre. 3. Fuel. 4. Fertilizer. 5.. Skin and 6. Traction. It is a living bank providing flexible finance in time of emergencies and also serves as insurance against crop failure for survival.If Agriculture is the foundation of our national economy Animal husbandry constitutes the sheet anchor of agriculture. Indian agriculture marches on the patient back of the bullock.

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Class 2:Various systems of livestock production-extensive – semi intensive- intensive- mixed.

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Exercise for the animal : Milch animal : Fat % : Absences of leg problem – over grown Hoof.Feed cost comparison – less Vs. intensive system, Identification – heat, ailing animals Dis Adv. : High yielding animal not suitable : Intensive : Total confinement to shed throughout the year and fed. Restricted movement – energy conservation, management easy.Number of animals can be maintained under direct supervision, space requirement less when compared with. Ext or SI system.

Demerits : over grown hoof ; lack of exercise. Leg problem : improperly maintained disease outbreak – severe – Economical loss – high.

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CLASS 3:INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEMS- ROLE OF LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY, MANURE MANAGEMENT METHODS, DUCK/FISH/RICE CULTURE

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Integrated farming system – (IFS)

 Component of farming system research a change farming techniques for maximum production – optimum utilisation of resources  Defects of mixed farming is overcome –  proper planning,  monitoring  and execution of work according to size of the farm, farm resources, Agro climatic etc.

Focused on a few selected, interdependent and interrelated systems Type of livestock species or poultry enterprises -selected  availability of feed,  fodder,  water resources of the farm.  Quantity – Availability : No. of animals maintained

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Class 4 :Definition of breed-classification of indigenous, exotic cattle and buffaloes -Breed characteristics of Sindhi, Kangayam and Umblacherry, Jersey, Holstein Friesian, Murrah and Surti.

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Breed: Definition : Denotes and established group of animals / birds having the similar general body shape, colour, structure and characters which produced offspring with same characters I .

Cattle – 1. Indigenous 2. Exotic Indigenous Breeds are classified under three groups based on utility / purpose. a. Milch – Example- Sindhi, Sahiwal, Gir and Deoni b. Dual – Example- Hariyana, Ongole, Tharparkar, Kankrej c. Draught – Example- Kangayam, Umblacherry, Amritmahal, Hallikar 2. Exotic – Milch – Jersey, Holstein Friesian

Red Sindhi Also Known By: Malir (Baluchistan), Red Karachi, Sindhi The Red Sindhi originated in the Pakistani state of Sind but due to its hardiness, heat resistance and high milk yields they have spread into many parts of India and at least 33 countries in Asia, Africa, Oceania and the Americas.

Under good management conditions the Red Sindhi averages over 1700 kg of milk after suckling their calves but under optimum conditions there have been milk yields of over 3400 kg per lactation.
The average height of a Red Sindhi cow is 116 cm with a body weight of 340 kg. Bulls average 134 cm in height and a body weight of 420 kg.

They are normally a deep, rich red color but this can vary from a yellowish brown to dark brown. Males are darker than females and when mature may be almost black on the extremities, such as the head, feet and tail

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Class 5 :Breeding- importance of cross breeding. Signs of estrous cycle-Artificial insemination-merits and demerits.

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CROSS BREEDING: This is mating of animals from the two different established breeds Eg.: Jersey (b) x Kangayam (c) : Jersey (c) x Holstein Friesian (b). The cross bred animals will exhibit the mixture of qualities of both the parents breeds.

The progeny will improve in production performance and will exhibit marked disease resistance characteristics of the native breed and is well adpated to with stand local climatic condition. 62.5% of exotic blood & 37.5% local blood – ideal .

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Class 6: Housing management-farm site selection-space requirement for calves, heifer, milch animal and work bullocks-Type design of house.

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Housing of cattle Housing is a essential for maintaining health, comport and protection for getting maximum production from the livestock.

Selection of site :

1. Topography and Drainage 2. Soil Type  3. Water Supply  4. Accessibility  5. Labour 6. Marketing 7. Electricity 8. Ventilation 9. Theromo neutral zone 10. Miscellaneous

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Class 7:Systems of housing-Single row system-Double row system- head to head and tail to tail-merits and demerits.

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Types of Housing – 1. Single row – Less than 15 animals 2. Double row – More than 15 animals a. Tail to tail system b. Head to head system Advantages of tail to tail system 1. All animals get fresh air. 2. Spreading diseases through respiratory system is minimum 3.Supervision of animals are easy (60% of the time is being devoted on the hind quarters) 4.Cleaning is easy

Disadvantages of tail to tail system 1. Spreading of diseases through digestive and reproductive system is high 2. Drainage channel is not exposed to sunlight. 3. Feeding of animals is laborious

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Class 8:Care and management of new born calf and heifers.

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Care of the New-Born calf

Remove the mucus from the nose and mouth and clean it. If the calf does not start breathing, artificial respiration should be used by pressing and relaxing alternatively, the chest walls with hands.

Another method is to hold the calf by the rear legs and lift from the floor with the head down. This may be repeated several times and helps in restoring respiration.

As soon as the calf starts breathing, observe as to whether the navel cord is still attached. The navel cord should be disinfected.

The navel cord of the calf is tied about 2.5 cm away from the body and cut about one centimetre below the ligature. Apply tincture of iodine to the cut end and repeat it 2-3 days.

This will prevent infection. Then, if the cow does not lick the calf dry, or if the weather is cold, the herdsman should wipe the calf to clean and dry.

The next important step to follow is to feed the Colostrum within 15 minutes of calving, the calf should be fed with colostrum at the rate- 1/10th of body weight and buffalo calves at the rate -1/15th of body weight.

Colostrum containing low fat, high protein, vitamins and minerals forms a balanced feed for new-born calves.

This helps to protect the calf against various diseases as it contains antibodies. Colostrum also helps to eliminate the material accumulated in the digestive tract before it was born.

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Class 9:Care and management of pregnant, lactating animals and work bullocks

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Care, management of Pregnant animals

  • 1. Identify pregnant-afterA.I.-90 days
  • 2. Provide gentle treatment
  • 3. First quarter of gestation period are critical
  • 4. In early stages of pregnancy disturbances can cause abortion.
  • 5. Provide concentrate feed 3.5 kg per day.
  • 6. Provide 25 – 35 Kg. Greed fodder per day and 5 Kg. Paddy straw.
  • 7. Minimum 45 – 60 days of dry period is essential.
  • 8. Avoid long distance travel.
  • 9. Avoid slippery condition in the shed.
  • 10.Avoid chasing by dogs, bulls or children.
  • 11.Avoid infighting between pregnant animals.
  • 12.Separate pregnant animals from recently aborted animals or carriers of diseases like brucellosis.
  • 13.Provide adequate clean drinking water
  • 14.Protect against extremes of climate

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Class 10: Milk-Definition – clean milk production-methods of milking – hand and machine milking. Preservatives and common adulterants of milk.

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Milk is the lacteal secretion of the mammary glands of animals.

It is obtained generally from the cow or the buffalo during the period following at least 72 hours after calving or until the milk is colostrum free.

Milk is a white opaque fluid in which fat is present as an emulsion, protein and some mineral matters in colloidal suspension, and lactose together with some minerals and soluble proteins in true solution.

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Class 11: Processing of milk-Cooling-Pasteurization-Definition-Various methods-Low Temperature Long Time, High Temperature Short Time and Ultra High Temperature advantages and disadvantages.

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Thermal processing : The main purpose of heat treatment of milk is to render it sage for human consumption and to enhance its shelf life.

Thermal processing is an integral part of all operations/processes of milk and milk products manufacturing units.

The common pathogenic organisms likely to occur in milk are killed by relatively mild heat treatment. The most resistant organism is the Bacillus tuberculosis and hence has been made as index organism to achieve complete safety of milk.

Any heat treatment, which may destroy this organism, can be relied upon to destroy all other pathogens in milk.

The thermal death of such pathogenic organisms like Tubercle bacilli, Typhus and Coliform bacteria of such pathogenic organisms like Tubercle bacilli, Typhus and Coliform bacteria and Coxiella burnettie (Q fever organism) has made the basis for timetemperature combinations is also a matter of optimization where both microbiological effects and quality aspects must be taken into account. Various categories of heat

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Class 12: Nutrition-Definition-Ration-Balanced ration-Desirable characteristics of a ration

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Nutrition involves various chemical reaction and physiological process which transforms Food into body tissue ( milk, meat, egg, wool )and activities (Work power).

Nutrition involves ingestion, digestion, and absorption of the various Nutrients and their transport to all the body cell and the removal of unusable elements and waste products of Metabolism.

Nutrients are defined as the substances which can sustain or aids in the support of the life.

Lavoiser-French Scientist is referred as father of Nutrition. There are two aspects in Animal Nutrition

  • 1. Science of Nutrition – It is the work of Animal Nutritionist
  • 2. Art of feeding of animals.- Good stockman ship.

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Class 13: Requirement and importance of green fodder, carrying capacity and forage cycle.

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IMPORTANCE OF GREEN FODDER Animals as well as man , could not exist were if not plants , and among them are GRASSES, the most useful of all plants. Green fodder is the primary only source of vit A for lactation vit ‘A’ is present in the form of precursor. Req. of vit A -50 I.U/live wt M : 87 I.U(M+P)

Maintenance& function of the mucous membrane  is directly related to vision.

 is essential reproduction a. conception, b. early embryonic mortality, c. maintenance of pregnancy, d.shedding of placenta.

is essential for the respiratory tract

is essential in the Gastro intestinal tract/ digestive tract-deficiency causes diarrhoea, mal absorption of nutrientsetc.,

 is essential for the urinary tract –deficiency causes stones in the kidney , ureter , bladder.

During lactation 2000 I.U. of Vitamin ‘A’ is eliminated in every litre of milk-It is to replenished

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Class 14:Diseases-classification-viral, bacterial and metabolic-General control and preventive measures.

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Health
The Condition in which all the organs and tissues in the system functions normally and harmoniously. Anychange from normal state either to single or great extent is called disease stage. Health is fundamental for a sound enterprise.

Most of the disease can be avoided by proper attention, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition and management practices.

Once outbreak of disease complicated – strain – financial loss – dual – production expenditure on medicines. So the farmer – vigilant – day to day activities- to avoid or prevent spreading of disease and to have a check on financial loss.

Control of Disease Provide well ventilated and proper housing Provide balanced nutritious diet Strict hygiene and sanitation of animal houses. Adhere regular and routine ‘vaccination’ schedule Avoid entry of outsiders within the farm-premises. Follow up of latest scientific know how and management practices.

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CLASS 15:VIRAL DISEASES-FOOT AND MOUTH – BACTERIAL DISEASES- ANTHRAX, HAEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA AND BLACK QUARTER – METABOLIC- TYMPANITES, KETOSIS AND MILK FEVER. MASTITIS AND ITS CONTROL.Foot and Mouth Disease

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FMD – Highly communicable disease – cloven footed animals Causative organism : family : Picornaviridae Genus : Apthovirus Smallest of the Animal virus : 7 types virus : O,A,C Asia I, SAT 1,2,3 Transmission : Direct contact : Thro water : manure : Pasture and cattle attendant Symptom : Incubation period 2 – 5 days : Temperature 40oC Drooling of saliva : Loss of appetite Vesicles in Tongue : gum : inter digital space, udder & teat . Rough coat with long hair, panting. The animal looses appetite and body weight milk production reduced. Lamness on account of painful foot lesions.

Treatment : Nil. External application of anti septics contributes to the healing of ulcers and wards off attacts by flies Antibiotics may be administered to counter bacterial infections. Prevention : Thorough disinfection of shed, utensils, clothes of attendants. Control : Vaccination – polyvalent – once – 4months or varies with type of vaccine Hoechst 3ml .oil adjuvant : IVPM – 20 ml calves – 40ml adults.

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Class 16: Zoonotic diseases – prevention and control (Anthrax, Tuberculosis, Brucellosis, and Rabies)

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ZOONOSES : Are diseases of animals including Homo sapiens. Its infective agents have become adapted to a particular animal species during course of evolution and can exist in these animals by uninterrupted infection chains.

In narrow (epidemiological) sense, transfer of causative agent of an animal disease to human beings is zoonoses.

They are diseases and infections the agents of which are naturallyn tranmitted among other vertebrate animals and man. Also included are a number of infections, which are shared but not naturally transmitted. Classification a.

Direct Z. – example rabies b. Cyclo Z. – eg. -teaniasis c. Sapro Z. – eg. – histoplasmosis d. Meta Z. – eg. – Japanese encephalitas e. Anthrapo Z. – Eg. Brucellosis

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CLASS 17: SHEEP AND GOAT FARMING-CLASSIFICATION OF BREEDS OF INDIAN AND EXOTIC ORIGIN-NOMENCLATURE ALONE.

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Sheep belongs to the family Bovidae ,Genus Ovis and Species- aries. The sheep an important economic livestock species contributes greatly to the agrarian Indian economy.

They play and important role in the livelihood of a large percentage of small and marginal farmers and land less labourers.

Sheep manure is an important source of organic fertilizer especially in the southern state where they are folded on fallow land for increasing fertility of the soil.

Sheep are mostly maintained on natural vegetation grazing lands (common) waste lands and uncultivated lands, stables of cultivated crops and tree loppings. Sheep are mostly reared for meat and wool.

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Class 18. Systems of rearing-Housing management- Type design- Floor diagram-Space requirement for adult and young stock.

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System of Production : Nomadic: Permanent 1. Subsistence commercial 1. Teathering 2.Extensive 3. Semi intensive 4 Intensive

Teathering :  Sedentary system  Suitable to areas of intensive agriculture  Controlled system of management  Minimum labour input  Utilization of feed stuffs in site

Extensive system: Allowed for grazing on agriculture land after harvesting and on natural bushes, shrubs and natural pasture land.

Disadvantages : Low carrying capacity  Deficit of nutrients excepts during monsoon.  Only poor quality (High fibre) plants are available.  Less weight gain : 20-40gm/day  No possibility of separating on age basis.  No scientific management is possible  Improvement by.

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CLASS 19. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF RAM, EWE AND LAMB-NUTRITION- FEEDS AND FODDER FOR SMALL RUMINANTS.

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Nutrition – small ruminants Uniqueness Goat : Browsing – selective feeding of

  • 1. Tender twigs and leaves – not available for other species.
  • 2. Wider feed acceptability.
  • 3. High crude fibre digestibility
  • 4. Consuming more dry matter / unit body weight
  • 5. High convertibility : 45-71% , cow : 38%
  • 6. Capable of thriving on bushes, shrubs, herbs, tree foliage and tree leaves.
  • 7. Highly prehensile tongue and mobile upper lip.
  • 8. Small in size – split feeding is essential
  • 9. Faster passage and fermentation rate
  • 10.To certain extract withstand toxic alkaloids Sheep

Grazing – better thrive -on stubble after harvest

  • 1. Highly resistant- water deprivation .
  • 2. Bifid upper lip.
  • 3. Consideration for fleece.

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CLASS 20. CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF BUCK, DOE AND KID- NUTRITION- FLUSHING.

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Nutrition – small ruminants Uniqueness Goat : Browsing – selective feeding of

  • 1. Tender twigs and leaves – not available for other species.
  • 2. Wider feed acceptability.
  • 3. High crude fibre digestibility
  • 4. Consuming more dry matter / unit body weight
  • 5. High convertibility : 45-71% , cow : 38%
  • 6. Capable of thriving on bushes, shrubs, herbs, tree foliage and tree leaves.
  • 7. Highly prehensile tongue and mobile upper lip.
  • 8. Small in size – split feeding is essential
  • 9. Faster passage and fermentation rate
  • 10.To certain extract withstand toxic alkaloids Sheep

Grazing – better thrive -on stubble after harvest

  • 1. Highly resistant- water deprivation .
  • 2. Bifid upper lip.
  • 3. Consideration for fleece

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Class 21: Common ailments of sheep and goat-Sheep pox-Foot and Mouth-Blue tongue- Enterotoxaemia – Ecto and Endo parasites.

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Blue Tongue : Viral Disease Infectious non contagious disease transmitted by Culicoides midges Virus – Orbivirus – Reoviridae Sheep are mainly affected – congestion, oedema and haemorrhage, fever lameness Symptom : Inflicting Mucous membrain of the Buccal Mucosa and Gastro intestinal tract Epithelial desquamation of sensitive laminate of hoof udder etc.

No vesicle formation Pyrexia Congestion oedema and Haemorrhage of Buccal cavity

Control : A live attenuated polyvalent vaccine prior to rainy season Annual vaccination Pregnant animals vaccinated prior to Lambing Routine hygiene and sanitation.

Vector control is very important in disease prevention

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class 22: Swine Husbandry –Common breeds of exotic origin-nomenclature alone housing of pigs.

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SWINE- PIG
Industry status 1.Primitive 2.Poor quality meat and low aesthestic value of meat produced. Advantages 1. High Prolificacy : 6-12 no./litter 2. FCR –1:2.5 – 3 3. Short generation interval 4. More quantity of meat/unit weight 5. More energy / unit weight 6. High meat : Bone ratio 7. Easily adapted to integrated or mixed farming system. 8. Successfully maintained on discarded feed, garden waste and kitchen waste. 9. High dressing percentage 10. High growth rate : 10Kg./month 11. Early maturity : 9-10 month of age 12. Early puberty : 5-8months length of oestrus cycle : 21 days Oestrus period : 2-4 days Service : 2nd /3rd day of oestrus Rebreeding after parturition : 3-4 weeks after weaning.

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Class 23: Care and management of Sow, Boar and Piglets-Nutrition- Creep feeding. Control and prevention of swine diseases –Hog cholera, Foot and mouth, Ecto and Endoparasites.

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SWINE- PIG
Industry status 1.Primitive 2.Poor quality meat and low aesthetic value of meat produced. Advantages 1. High Prolificacy : 6-12 no./litter 2. FCR –1:2.5 – 3 3. Short generation interval 4. More quantity of meat/unit weight 5. More energy / unit weight 6. High meat : Bone ratio 7. Easily adapted to integrated or mixed farming system. 8. Successfully maintained on discarded feed, garden waste and kitchen waste. 9. High dressing percentage 10. High growth rate : 10Kg./month 11. Early maturity : 9-10 month of age 12. Early puberty : 5-8months length of oestrus cycle : 21 days Oestrus period : 2-4 days Service : 2nd /3rd day of oestrus Rebreeding after parturition : 3-4 weeks after weaning.

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Class 24: Classification of poultry viz. layer, broiler and dual purpose- Nomenclature of commercial layer and broiler strains.

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India occupy 5th place in worlds Egg production -32700 million. The per capita consumption of an India is approximately 33 eggs as against the recommendation of 180 egg. Indian poultry population – 435 million – 4% World poultry.

Tamil Nadu ranks second in the country producing 4400 million eggs per year. Namakkal is a second largest poultry pocket in India with the population of 75 lakhs chicks and growers and about 196 lakhs layer birds. The poultry production through out the world is carried out by a highly specialized efficient Poultry Industry that has been a leader in trends of scale. Poultry Industry has shifted itself rapidly and completely from a small scale non intensive production units to a highly specialized intensive industry. The progress is attributed to the conceptual change that had taken place in the middle of the century.

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25. Care and management of day old chicks-Brooder management. Preparation of Brooder Brooder means to give a heat source by artificial means for the period of growth of chicks from 0 day (Day old) to 4 weeks. The heat source generally has a large refector (Hover) under which the chicks will get the heat uniformly.

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Aim
The day old chicks do not posses the insulating feather coverage to protect them from cold. It may result in the losing of body heat to the environment resulting in chilling which will create the ground for many diseases.
Preparation of Brooder and daily routine work carried out in the farm
Objective
Chicks do not possess a well-developed thermo- regulatory mechanism. The day old chicks don’t posses the insulating feather coverage to protect them from chillness. The body temperature of chick is 1070 F which is always more than the ambient temperature. It may result in the losing of body heat to the environment. So a source of heat is given by natural brooding or by Artificial brooding up to 4 weeks of age.

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26. Systems of housing- Deep litter and cage systems – merits and demerits.

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System of poultry rearing : In the annals of Poultry Development, one can see a gradual development in respect of the allotment of space, feeding, nutrition and in management etc. on the basis of scientific and technological developments poultry management moved from free range system to semi intensive system and then to intensive system. Free range system: Birds are allowed free range, such that it can wander at will, over the allotted paddock or field and are not controlled by fences.

Deforested land was used. 200 birds/acre allotted. In an ordinary land 100 birds/Acre was allotted. They received their bulk quantity of feed from the land in the form of herbage, seeds, insects etc. besides in small quantity by hand feeding. A small housing is provided for night shelter.

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27.Raised platform housing Floor space requirement and litter management

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New concepts in poultry house design and farm management are finding their way for improved flock performance through better environmental conditions and automation in feeding, drinking and related systems. All this ensures more comfort to birds leading to better production and higher profitability. Among the recent innovations which have been successfully adopted in the country including construction of elevated platform cage and environmentally controlled houses with automatic drinking and feeding systems for rearing layer birds. This integrated and latest approach to housing design, nutrition, management and disease control would eventually influence flock performance and profitability.

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28.Care and management of layers.

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Layer Management: From the point of lay to one year it is called laying period. When first egg laid – Pullet – pullet egg. Floor space : 2 sq.ft. Feeder space : 4 sq.ft. Water space : 2 sq.ft. Nest space : 1 box for 5 birds Litter Depth : 6 box for 5 birds. Feeding : Layer mash is fed during this period – 18% protein. Daily ration is decided and issued two to three times in a day. This helps in lesser feed wastage and better balancing.

Choice feeding of calcium : Calcium is supplied to the birds in feed. Supply of calcium in the feed assures a more uniform intake of calcium by all the birds.

For hens in very high egg production and in high environmental temperature supplementation of extra calcium is necessary. This is given in the form of shell grit. 5-10 Kgs./100birds/Month. Lighting : Layer birds has to be kept with a period of at least 16 hours a day. Twelve hours of day light is supplemented with additional 4 hours night lighting. It is introduced as step up programme.

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29. Care and management of broilers. Broiler

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management : Broiler is defined as the tender meated chicken of either sex which grow from 35 to 40 gms of initial weight to 2kg or more in 6 weeks of age by consuming around 4 kg of feed.

0-4 4-8 floor space ½ sq.ft. 1 sq.ft. feeder space 3 sq.ft. 6 sq.ft. water space 2 sq.ft. 4 sq.ft. Brooding and management similar to layer brooding Feeding : Two types 1. Broiler starter – 0-3weeks – CP 23 – E 2900 2. Broiler finisher – 4-6 weeks – Cp 20 – E 3000

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30. Poultry Nutrition-Feed formulation-composition of chick mash grower, layer, broiler starter and finisher mashes .

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Feeding Management Poultry being simple stomached species, cannot synthesise most of the nutrients required for them and so the nutrients become dietary essentials chicken has to be fed adequate quantities of balanced diet for its growth, livability and to exhibit its genetic potential to the full extent. Poultry differ from other species of livestock in body temperature and digestion

Biological activity and maturity. Poultry feed is composed of 60-65% Energy giving materials 30-35% of Protein source 2-8% Minerals source.

And above all water. Which is considered as the Principal nutrient should be pure, whole some, free from physical impurities, toxic substances and Bacterial contamination. Water : feed ratio 2.2 : 1 It is variable with age, climate, feed and physiological activity. Excess energy is stored as body fat.

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Class 31 : Feed Conversion Ratio / dozen eggs or kilogram of meat. Marketing channels in poultry-Integration.

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Egg marketing : The wholesale rade of eggs in big cities, where potential demand exists, is in the hands of a few traders who have monopolized this trade for their own advantages. Egg prices vary from one market to another and from one season to another. In summer, the egg prices crash down to a level which is sometimes less than the cost of production, even though the retail price does not vary proportionately. Therefore proper attention has to be given to the problem of most efficient disposal of market eggs. Distribution channel. The eggs are distributed through different channels, viz. producers to consumers, producers via retailers to consumers, producers via assesmblers to consumers, wholesalers, retrailers to consumers, and producers to consumers via co-op societies/egg marketing organizations. Eggs should be distributed through relatively shorter channels to speed up supply and avoid delay and repeated handling.

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32. Classification of Poultry diseases-Viral-Bacterial-Protozoan- causative organisms, symptoms and prevention – Viral diseases – Ranikhet disease – Infectious bursal disease.

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Disease and their control. Disease is defined as the deviation from the normal state of health which may be characterized by impaired body functions, decrease in production, mortality and morbidity

General Control measures: 1. Buy chicks from reputed disease from companies. 2. Adhere strictly to vaccination programme. 3. Keep the houses dry cool and well ventilated. 4. Rodent and fly proof. 5. Sanitation of litter, feeder and waterer. 6. Follow medication schedules. 7. P.M.disposal through burial or inceration of the waste and dead. 8. Earmark areas for specific age group. 9.Screening visitors. 10.Foot baths with sanitizens. 11.All in all out system. 12. Personnel sanitation

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33. Bacterial diseases-E.coli-Coryza-Salmonellosis-Protozoan–Coccidiosis-casuative organism – symptoms and preventive measures. Nutritional deficiency diseases and its control.

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Bacterial Diseases
Coli Bacillosis Escherchia coli infection Agrravated by other stress factors Symptoms- Dirrohoea, sweling of joints, comb, and wattle. moratility – vey high Prevention- Proper sanitationand management, avoiding stress addition of antibacterials and anti biotics in feed and water Infectious coryza Haemophilus gallinarum Symptoms- all ages – affected, Acute respiratory infection, high morbidityand low mortality, odema of face ,wattle and comb, discharge from nostrils Recovered birds –carriers Prevention and control- Better hygiene, Addition of Anti bacterials and antibiotics – Sulpha in feed, Tylosin, tetetracycline.

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