Animal Husbandry, Dairying And Veterinary Science
● In the World, India’s rank is ‘first’ in respect of milk production, buffalo population, second in cattle and goats, third in sheep 5th-Ducks, and chickens/or poultry, 10th in Camel, population, but in egg production, our country is on ‘Third’ rank, while U.S.A. ranks first in egg production.
● India is the second largest in fish/aquaculture production 8·29 million during 2010-11 in world.
● In India, the per capita per day milk availability (in g) was found as—
In 1950-51— 124,
2001-02—221, 6188, 200304—231 and in 2010-11—281 g.
(World average 286 g/day/capita). Say, it has reached nearly ‘two folds’ within 5 decades. However, the recommended milk availability per capita by the ICMR is 280 g. Thus, India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world.
● In India, the total milk production was only 17·0 million tonnes in 1950-51, while it was 121·8 million tonnes in 2010-11, as against 84·3 million tonnes in 2001-02. Thus, within nearly 60 years, it has gone to about 7 folds’. However, it was obtained 20·0 (196061), 22·0(1970-71), 31·6 (1980-81), 53·9 (1990-91) and 80·8 million tonnes milk production (2000-01).
● In the country, Cattle-Wealth sectors (during 2010-11) have produced 121·8 million tonnes milk, 63·0 billion eggs (Nos.), 43·0 million kg wool and 8·3 million tonnes total fishes (3·4 mt marine & 4·9 inland).
● The cattle-wealth sectors contribute a lot in the country, by providing regular employment to mainly 19 millions peoples (men) and for 9 million peoples-as subsidiary form.
● In cattle-wealth sectors, the share of women in labour force is nearly 71%, whereas in
Agriculture (farming), it is hardly 35%. About 0·5 million women are employed in pre and post–harvest operations in marine sector.
● World’s costly female-dog-cost Rs. 7·30 lakh auction in Britain in 2012 year, 18 months age black and white colour.
● The contribution of livestock and fisheries sector (during 2009-10) in GDP–Gross Domestic Products was 4·1%.
● In the World, India ranks ‘first’ in buffalo population (57%), II in cattle (14%) and of fisheries as III rank and in Fresh Water Fish– as II largest producer country.
● During 2010-11, the total fish production (Marine and Inland both) in the country, it was obtained 8·29 million tonnes. However, the total fish production during 1950-51, it was hardly 0·7 million tonne. Thus, nearly 9 times increase was recorded during last 60 years.
● Under Ministry of Agriculture (Govt. of India), the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries (Previously Known as ‘Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying’) came into existence on 1 February 1991 and Fisheries was transferred to the Department on 10 Oct. 1997.
● Animal Husbandry output constitutes about 31·7% of the country’s agricultural output.
● The livestock & fisheries sectors, contribution is about 4·10% in G.D.P. (2010-11)
● India accounts for 57% of the world’s buffalo population and 14% of the cattle population. According to the Livestock Census 2003, the country has about 18·52 crore cattle and 9·79 crore buffaloes, as compared to 15·5 crore cattle and 4·3 crore buffaloes in 1951.
● The present per day availability of animal protein in an Indian diet is 10 g per person, as against a world average of 25 g per capita per day. Thus, it has to increase at least two-folds for proper nutritional level.
● Presently, in India, there are about 50·8 million sheep and 115 million goats, and nearly 5 million households are engaged in rearing for small ruminants (sheep, goats and rabbits) and other allied activities.
● In England, 3 years aged duck was auctioned in year 2012 cost Rs. 1·30 lakh (1500 pounds).
● World’s tallest Holstein-Friesian cow, having 6 feet and 4 inches height in Newada (2012).
● ‘Milk and Milk Product Order-1992’ was notified on June 1992.
● ‘Conservation of Threatened Breeds’—a new centrally-sponsored scheme has been started during 10th Five Year Plan.
● A Centrally-Sponsored Scheme “Assistance to States for modernisation/improvement of abottoirs and establishment of carcass utilization centres and primary hide flying units” is being implemented for meat production/ processing and export.
● Nearly 2·44% of total geographical area (329 million hectare) and 11·29% of agriculture use land (142 million hectare) are under the use of animal husbandry.
● Nearly 16·23% of the World-Total Cattle and 47·16% of Asia is in India; and is expected to reach upto 21·8 crore in the country by 21st century.
● India has 4·58% sheep of the World and 9·26% of Asia; that may reach upto 5·51 crore by the end of 21st century.
● NDDB (National Dairy Development Board) Anand (Gujarat) was established in the year 1965 as—I chairman Dr. V. Kurean and DMS—Delhi Milk Scheme in 1959.
● The separation of Animal Husbandry and Dairying Department from Agriculture Ministry, Govt. of India was done on Feb. 1, 1991 and fisheries was transferred on 10 Oct., 1997.
● Technology Mission On Dairy Development Project (in 16 states) was started in 1988.
● Cattle Insurance Plan (Pashu Beema Yojana) was started from 1974.
● ‘White Revolution’ and ‘Operation Flood’ programmes are related to milk production and Milk Development Projects. The Operation Flood–III stage was completed on 30 April, 1996.
● Milk & Milk Products Order (MMPO)-1992 was notified by the Government of India.
● ‘All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Goats’ was launched by the ICAR in 1971.
● National Commission on Agriculture (1976) & Govt. of India recommended for at least
10% of cultivable irrigated area should be allocated for quality fodder production.
● Govt. of India has established 3 Feed Analytical Laboratories at (i) Bhubaneshwar (Orissa), (ii) Aarey Milk Colony, Mumbai and (iii) U.T. of Chandigarh.
● Artificial Insemination (AI) Programme was first started in India at the Palace Dairy Farm at Mysore in 1939.
● The first buffalo calf through AI was born in 1943 at the AAI (Allahabad Agricultural Institute) Allahabad (U.P.).
● The successful freezing of bull spermatozoa at (–) 79°C and its freezing capacity was first reported in 1952.
● In India, buffaloes form about 30% of the cattle population and they produce about 52% of total milk yield.
● India possesses 27 acknowledged indigenous breeds of cattle (cows) & 7 breeds of buffaloes.
● 7 Central Cattle Breeding Farms at Suratgarh (Raj.), Chiplima & Semiliguda (Orissa), Dhamrod (Gujarat), Hessarghatta (Karnataka), Alamadi (T.N.) & Andeshnagar (U.P.) are engaged in cattle buffalo breeding programme.
● World Wildlife Day 6 October.
● World Veterinary Day—28 April.
● World Animal Welfare Day—4 October.
● Major Institutions—
#Central Goat Research Institute (CGRI / CIRG), Makhdoom, Farah (Mathura),– U.P.;
#Central Buffalo Research Institute (CIRB), Hisar (Haryana);
#Central Aviation Research Institute (CARI), Izatnagar (Bareilly)-(U.P.);
#Central FoodTechnology Research Institute (CFTRI), Mysore (Karnataka);
#Central Institute for Fisheries Education (CIFE), Mumbai (Maha.) and Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI) Malpura, Avikanagar (Rajasthan).
#CIFRI (Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute) Barackpore Kolkata–esti. 1947.
#Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training, Kochi (Kerala),
#Central Institute of Coastal Engineering for Fisheries, Bangalore and Fisheries Survey of India, Mumbai.
#Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute (IGFRI), Jhansi (U.P.)
#Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI), Izatnagar (Bareilly, U.P.)
#National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal (Haryana);
#National Institute for Animal-Genetics (NIAG), Karnal;
#National Institute on Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad
#Fisheries Survey of India, Mumbai.
#Project Directorate for Cattle, Meerut (U.P.);
#Project Directorate for Poultry, Hyderabad (A.P.);
#Integrated Fisheries Project, Kochi.
#Veterinary Science University, Chennai (T.N.), U.P.
#Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwa Vidayalaya Evam Go Anusandhan Sansthan, Mathura (U.P.).
#Central Cattle Breeding Farm (CCBF) at Dhamrod, Surat (Gujarat); Andhesh Nagar, Distt. Lakhimpur (U.P.), Similiguda (Orissa); Suratgarh (Raj.), Chiplima (Orissa), Avadhi, Alamadhi (Chennai), Hessarghatta (Bangalore);
#Central Frozen Semen Production and Training Institute, Hessarghatta, Bangalore; Central Sheep Breeding Farm, Hisar; Central Poultry Breeding Farm, Hessarghatta, (Bangalore) and Bhubaneshwar (Orissa).
#Central Herd Registration Unit (s) at; Rohtak (Haryana), Ajmer (Raj.), Ahmedabad, Santhapat and Ongole (A.P.).
#Delhi Milk Scheme (DMS) received raw/ fresh milk from-provincial Co-operative Dairy Federation (PCDF) Lucknow; HDDCF (Haryana), Chandigarh; Milk Federation Punjab; RCCDF Ltd. Jaipur; Indore Milk Federation, Ujjain Milk Federation, Gwalior Milk Federation; Kondali Development Co-operative Societies, Delhi; Adarsh Dairy Co-operative Society, Delhi; Rajasthan Sweets and Dairy Products Co-operative Ltd., Bikaner.
● DMS (Delhi Milk Scheme) set-up in 1959 has its present capacity to sale on an average per day of nearly 5 lakh litre milk.
● The Ministry of Food Processing Industries was later transferred to the Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying w.e.f. Oct. 10, 1997 (from Ministry of Agriculture), which came into existence w.e.f. Feb. 1, 1991 in Agric. Ministry.
● NDDB (National Dairy Development Board), Anand (Gujarat) was set-up in 1987 to
accelerate the pace of dairy development on Co-operative lines.
● Indian Veterinary Council Act, 1984; the Department of Animal Husbandry conducted the first Election of Veterinary Council of India in Nov. 1999.
● According to 18th Livestock Census 2007, (Cattle population in million)—Cattle199·07, Buffalo-105·3, Sheep-71·5, Goat140·5, Pigs-11·1, (Total Livestock-529·6 million) and Poultry-648·8 million. This has recorded corresponding increased in number, compared over Census 1997 to the tune of – 6·8, 8·9, 6·96, 1·38, 1·51, respectively, i.e. – 1·1% cattle, 1·4%, buffalo, 0·26% pigs, 1·13% sheep and 2·3% goats yearly increase was noted, which remained 5·85% in poultry.
● In the year 2007-08, the total milk production in the country was recorded 104·8 million tonnes, which is now 121·8 mt. in 2010-11 on the maximum place in the world. Thus, India has become now a largest milk producer country (Ranking I) at the global scenario.
● The world’s first turkey embryo culture chick in laboratory was developed at the CARI, Izatnagar (Bareilly) U.P. This was developed by a simple and efficient double window embryo culture system for production of embryo of turkey chick.
● Citric acid and neem bark powder prevents fungal infestation of stored feeds–a new ITK (Indigenous Technical Know-how).
● Sheep manure improves biological yield of fodder production.
● Prosopis juliflora (Subabool) feed replaced barley concentrate in sheep diet satisfactorily.
● The ranking of top feeds is as fellows— Very good—Leucaena leucocephala, M. ozedarach, Zizyphus jujube Good—Carissa spinarum, Z. nummularia, Hippophoe rhamnoides Average— Ficus roxburghii, Robinia pseudoocacia Poor—Quereus incana
● Zoological/Scientific Name of—Cow (Bos taurus, B. indica), Buffalo (Babulus bubalis), Sheep (Ovis aries), Goat (Capra hircus), Pig (Sus serofa, S. vittatus, and S. domestic) Camel (Camelus bactrianus, C. dromedarius), Horse (Equus cuballus) and Ass (Equus asinus).
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