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Anthrax and Rinder Pest- Animal Disease

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Anthrax Animal Disease

Synonyms: Splenic fever, fanshi, kalpuli

It is an acute widespread infectious disease of all warm blooded animals specially cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat. It is communicable to man i.e. Zoonotic disease. It is soil-borne infection. It usually occurs after major climatic change. The disease is enzootic in India.
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Etiology: This disease is caused by bacteria called Bacillus authracis.
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Transmission:

1.It usually spreads through ingestion of contaminated feed and water.
2.Sometimes, it also occurs by inhalation and biling flies.

Symptoms:
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1. Sudden rise in body temperature (104 – 10S°F)
2. Loss of appetite i.e. off-feed.
3. Severe depression or dullness.
4. Suspended rumination
5. Increased respiration and heart rate
6. Bloat or tympany.
7. Dyspnoea – difficult breathing
8. Dysentery or diarrhoea,
9. Bleeding from natural openings like anus, nostrils, vulva etc.
10. Sudden death in peracute cases.

Diagnosis:
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1. History of sudden change in climate and sudden death,
2. Symptom – sudden death & bleeding from natural openings.
3. Postmortem findings:
Oozing of dark: tarry Coloured poorly clotted blood from natural opening
Enlargement of spleen i.e. Splenomegenly.
4. Microscopic examination of blood smears.
5. Isolation and identification of organism.
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Treatment : Treatment is effective if given in the initial stage of the disease.
1. Penicillin @ 10000 units/kg body wt. IM.
2. Oxytetracycline © 5-10 mg/kg body wt. IM/IV.
3. Antiantrax serum @ 100-200 ml IV may be given if available.
4. Supportive treatment with antipyretics, antitistammics and fluid thereyp.

Control:
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1. General measures: Identification and isolation of affected animals.
2. Movement of animals from infected area to clean area should be stopped.
3. Deep burial of dead animals.
4. Destroy contaminated fodder by burning.
5. Thorough disinfection of cattle shed by using 10% caustic Soda or formalin.
6. Never conduct postmortem of the annual suspected lo be died of Anthrax.
7. Anthrax spore vaccine @ 1 ml subcut every year before onset of monsoon in areas where anthrax outbreaks are common.

Rinder Pest

Synonyms: Cattle plague, Bovine typhus, Bulkandi

It is an acute highly contagious viral disease of ruminants and pig. Crossbred and young cattle are more susceptible to this virus.
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Etiology: It is caused by paramyxovirus.

Transmission:
1. It spreads primarily through inhalation.
2. It also spreads through ingestion of contaminated feed and water.
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Symptoms:
1. Fever usually persists for 3 days.
2. Loss of appetite (off feed)
3. Drop in milk yield
4. Suspended rumination
5. Conjunctiva becomes dark red i.e. congested
6. Ladriation.
7. Nasal discharge
8. Necrotic ulcers or erosions on oral mucus membrane.
9. Salivation
10. Shooting diarrhoea.
10. Abdominal pain/colic
12. Dehydration
13. Death within 6-12 days
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Diagnosis:

  1. History of an outbreak and symptoms.
  2. Postmortem findings – Zebra markings in intestine.
  3. Isolation of virus from blood, spleen & lymphnodes.
  4. Serological tests.
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Treatment:

It is very little help in Rinderpest; however, the following treatment may prove beneficial in reducing the death rate among affected animals.
Antibiotics like penicillin, streptomycin, Oxytetracycline should be given to check secondary bacterial infection.
Astringents or antidiarrhoel drugs.
Use of anti-rinderpest serum. –
Fluid and electrolyte therapy – Dextrose saline

Control:
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a) General measures:
1. Identification and isolation of sick animals.
2. Complete prohibition of import of domestic ruminants, pig, and animal products from affected area.
3. Restriction of animal movements.
4. Disposal of dead animals.
5. Disinfection of contaminated shed and premises.

b) Vaccination:

Tissue Culture Rinderpest Vaccine (TCRPV) © ‘I ml SC every a I termite year.

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