Basics about Fruits

Basics about Fruits


Mangifera indica F: Anacardiaceae 2n = 40

· Ripe mango is rich source of vitamin A and C.

· Baneshan – leading commercial variety – Succeptible to mangohoppers.

Rumani – Attractive commercial table variety.

Neelum – Suitable for long distant transport

Alphonso – Leading commercial variety of Maharashtra.

· Cherakurasam – Suitable for cultivation in drylands.

· Polyembryonic varieties – Bappakai, Goa, Bellary, Salem, Nilexwar dwarf.

Neelaeshan – Neelum X Baneshan.

Neeludin – Neelum X Himauddin

Neelgoa – Neelum X Yerramulgoa

· Swarna – Jahangir – Chinnasuvarna rekha X Jahangir

A.U. Rumani – Mulgoa X Rumani

Mallika – Neelum X Dashahari – by IARI.

· Table and juicy variety – Chinnasuvarna rekha

Early variety – Rajamani,

Late variety – Mulgoa.

Off season variety – Neelum., Banglora.

Pickle variety – Acharpasand, Tellagulabi.

Variety for preservation Baneshan, Banglore.

· Mulgoa is monoembryolic in India and is poly embryonic in “Florida” (USA).

· Sufficient heat during the ripening of the fruit.

· In “Kanyakumari” mango fruits are obtained all round the year.

· In arching of approach grafting is the principle method of propagation followed by “Vineer grafting”.

· “Kalepadi” variety is dwarfing stock and wild mango variety called “Ulima” (Ceylon) a prolific root stock

· Spreading variety – Peter.

· Mango can withstand deficiency of “Phosphorus” but not “Potash”.

· “Dashahari” produce high percentage of perfect flowers.

· Neelum and Banglore are regular varieties.

· Malformation affects the vegetative shoot is called “Bunchy top”.

· “Bhadran” variety of Uttar Pradesh is resistant and free form the Malformation.


Musa paradisiaca F: Musaceae

Adams fig, Apple of paradise.

· Heart – male bud.

· Fruits are called “Fingers”.

· Poovan (Chekkarakeli) – good keeping quality.

· Amruthapani – best table variety.

· Tella Chakkarakeli – best of banana in circars.

· Basrai – Immune to panama wilt but suffer from bunchy top of disease.

· Nendran – It is a dual purpose variety of great importance in Kerala.

· Hill bananas : 1. Virupakashi – Perennial bananas


· Banana is propagated vegetatively through suckers and Rhizomes.

· Removal of dry leaves is called “Trashing”.

· Banana fruits develop “parthinocarpically” (seedless fruits).

· Removal of male bud of the inflorescence give 15% increase in yield.

· Cutting of the pseudostem on a little above the ground “Muttocking”.

· Basrai – Immune to panama wilt and good.

· Poovan – Resistant to panama wilt and good keeping quality.


F: Rutaceae

· The special feature of citrus fruits is the presence of “juice sacks”.

· Three generas: 1. Citrus 2. Fortunella 3. Poncirus.

Sweet orange – citrus sinensis; Acid lime – C. aurentifolia

Lemon – C. limon; Mandarina – C. reticulata.

Rough lemon – C. jambheri; Vadlapudi orange (kichilli) – C. maodras patna.

Trifoliate orange – Poncirus trifoliate; grape fruit – C. paradisi.

· USA biggest produce of citrus.

· Florida produces 90% of the grape fruit in the world.

· Oranges grown in different parts of India are of two species.

Sweet orange
Mandarin orange.

· Varieties of sweet orange – Sathgudi, Mosambi, Batavian.

· The mandarin group includes all types of loose Jacket oranges commonly called “Santhra”.

1. Sathgudi – Known as Chini.

2. Batavion – Yellow and green stripes due to “basketting” – pumello is the only monoembryonic.

· Exotic variety – Valencia late – Late variety – prolific bearer.


1. Nagpur santhra: Finest of all mandarins.

2. Agency kamala: Variety from grown in Andhra Pradesh.

Exotic variety Kinnow – a hybrid resistant to sun burn with richer juice.

· The only variety grown lime is called “Kagzi lime”.

· Tahiti – lime is seedless.

· Rangpur lime is a hybrid between Mandarin and rough lemon.

· Seedless variety of lemon – Melta, Lucknow; Italian.

· Acid lime can stand heavy rains and resistant to high water level.

· Vegetative propagation is shield budding (or) T. budding.

· “Mandarins” are largely propagated by seed all over the country except Nagpur santhra which is the only budded variety.

· The most commonly used stocks for sweet orange and mandarins are Jamberi (Rough lemon) and Karna Khatta.

· Karna Khatta is satisfactory root stock for grape fruit, Trifoliate orange – hardest root stock – dwarfing rootstock for sweet orange.

Rangapur lime used as stock for mosambi in Bombay region.

· For “Napur santhra” sweet lime is satisfactory stock.

· Acid lime is commonly propagated by seed all over the country because the seeds. exhibit a high percentage of polyembryony.

· Cultivation of solanaceous vegetables as inter crop may be avoided as this may encourage the development of nematodes which may cause root damage.

1. Angam season – September – February 80% of total annual yield.

2. Gairangam – July – September 15% of total yield.

3. Edagaru – March – May


Vitis vinifera F: vitaceae

· Largest produced fruit of the world.

· “Raisins” varieties are better dried and preserved.

· __________________________ – Delphinidin
· Banglore blue is a hybrid between V. labrusca X V. vinifera
                           (American grape) (European grapes)

· Commercial classes of grapes :

1. Table grapes
Arab – E – Shahi
Selection No.-7

2. Rasin grapes
Thompson seedless

3. Wine grapes
Gross column

4. Sweet juice grapes
Banglore blue

· Canning group – Thomspon seedless. Canner.

· Grape is commercially propagated through ‘hardwood cutting”.

· To avoid aphid problem it is propagated through ‘budding’.

Region Training Method

1. Bombay – Deccan region Single stake system
2. Punjab and Haryana Kniffin system
3. Banglore region
Madhurai region
Pandal over head system arbour system

· In single stake system live stocks of erithrina indica are used to support the vines.

· Cardon system similar to kniffin system with the arms spreading in one direction only.

· Inflorescence is opposite to leaf.

· Spur – Aportion of the cane (or) ripened shoot left behind on the plant after pruning.

· Fruit branches are borne only one fresh wood called “fruiting spur” of the current season.

1. Summer (or) April pruning – Back pruning.
Only a single bud left at regular intervals of the canes and these new develop into new shoots. Such buds gives the foundation for the new crop and are known as “Foundation spurs”.

2. Winter pruning (or) October pruning – Forward pruning 8-10 buds left.

· During through the cut surface called “Bleading”.


Psidium gujava F: Myrtaceae

· Drink in case of guava called “Guava nectar”.

· Alahabad safeda – It is the most famous variety.

· Kohir – Popular variety of Telangana.

· Seedless variety: Nagpur seedless. 2. Saharanpur seedless.

· Hybrids – Safed jam – Allahabad safed X Kohoir

Kohir safeda – Kohir X Allahabad safeda

· Developed at RARS; anantharajpet – Red fleshed X Sanharanpur seedless.

· Bending the upright branches horizontally giving a drooping position. This method of training is called “Bending”.

· Flowering:

1. February – Ambe bahar – Insipid

2. June – Mrig bahar – Excellent quality.

3. October – Hasthe bahar – Chance crop.

· The stopping of irrigation and thus making the plant to undergo and consolidate their food reserves in their branches is called “Bahar treatment”.

Sapota: (Chiku) Achras sapota F: Sapotaceae

· Important : Commercial product – gutta percha (chicklet) – Which is the base for chewing gum.

Variety 1. Cricket ball, Dwarapudi, Pala, Banglore – grown in circars

Kirthabatti – egg shape
Kalipatti – leading variety of Bombay.
Baramasi – Year round cropping variety.

· Propagation – seeds, air layering (It is not used because of granulation is problem).

· The root stocks commonly used.

1. Mimosops hexandra (Khirnee).

2. Madhuka latifolia (Bassia)


Carica papaya F: Caricaceae

Origin – Mexico (Tropical America)

Varieties : Washington

· CO-1 – Selection made in Coimbatore. Good for papain collection.

· Solo: It produces plants with only female and perfect flowers.

· Propagated through seeds.

· One male plant for a group of 10 female plants (1:10).

· CO-2 is an improved. Strain from Coimbatore exclusively for “Papain”.

· Selection – 7 produced on

Pine apple:-

Ananas casmosus F: Bromeliaceae

3 types 1. Caynne group : Kew, Gaint kew.

2. Queen group : Queen – High suckers bearing ability.

3. Spanish group : Red Mauritius, yellow Mauritius.

· Crops can tolerate partial shade.

· “Kew” is the leading commercial variety.

· Mauritius is a mid season variety

· Propagations through suckers, slips (or) crowns.


Punica granatum F: Punicaceae

· The juice is useful for patients suffering from “leprosy”.

· The edible part of pomegranate is the juicy out growth of the seed called the “Aril”.

· Alandi (Hard seeded variety); Dholka – Westindies.

In South India – Papershell, Masket red.

· Seed propagation is common also through hard wood stem cuttings.

· Boron deficiency cause cracking of fruits.

· The Mrig bahar crop is more susceptible to fruit cracking.

· Tree begins fruiting in the fourth year.

Fig: –

Ficus carica F: Moraceae

· They stimulate blood production and are useful for preventing acute anemia.

· At the apex of the fig is a small opening known as “eye”.

1. Caprifig (Wild fig) – both male and female flowers. Short style female flowers are adopted for the laying of egg by fig wasp (Blastopl age).

2. Smyrna fig.

3. Common fig – Capable of developing without pollination.

· Poona – The variety belong to common fig (or) Adriatic fig type. It is bell shaped variety.

· Propagated by hard wood stem cutting.


Grewia subinaequalis (Bush phalsa) F: Tiliaceae

G. asiatica (Tree phalsa)

· Phalsa is grown mostly from seeds.

· Ber:

Ziziphus jujube F: Rhamnaceae

· Propagation of superior varieties by “Shield budding”.

· “Dodhia and Banarsi” varieties are commonly cultivated in Rayalaseema.

· Dodhia variety is said to be resistant to fruitfly attack.

Jack fruit : –

Artocarpus heterophyllus F: Moraceae O: India

· It gives the largest fruit, which are borne on leafless stalks arising from the trunk.

· Male and female flowers of jack are borne in separate drooping “catkins”.

· Variety: Rudrakshi, Singapore (or) Ceylonjack.

· Carambola: Averhoa carambola F: Oxalidaceae.

· Some fruits the fruit is used as a substitute for tamarind in cooking.

· Passian fruit :

Passiflora edulis F: passifloraceae

· Variety : yellow variety, Purple variety.

Amla :

Anola, Indian gooseberry: phyllanthus emblica (or)Emblica officinalis
F : Euphorbiaceae


Indian black berry : syzygium cumini F: Myrtaceae


Malus sylvertsis F: rosaceae

· Variety 1. Diploids – (self fruitful) – Red delicious, Yellow delicious, Jonathan.

Triploids – (self unfruitful) – Baldwin, Beauty of both, Cox’s orange pippin.

· “Ambri Kashmiri” is indigenous to Kashmir valley.

· The presence of lime in the soil is good for apple cultivation.

· Generally propagated by budding (or) grafting.

· “Malling ix” dwarfing root stock in popular.

· The tree should be trained to modified leader system.

· Some apple trees bear fruit on short crooked growth called as “Spurs”.


Pyrus communis (French pea) (or) European pear – persistant calyx.

F : Rosaceae. P. pyrifolia oriental pear.

· Most of variety are self unfruitful.

· Variety : 1. Bagu gosha – Excellent canning variety.

 Gost baghu – Better keeping quality – Longest variety in Kashmir.

· Nashpati – self fruitful.

· Propagation by “Shield budding”.

· To produce dwarf pear, trees. Quince ‘C’ rootstock is used.

· Intermediate root stock – old home.


prunus persica F: Rosaceae

· All variety are self fruitful, except the variety “J.H. Hale” which is male sterile.

1. Elberta – wider climatic adoptability.
2. Alexander.

· Propagated by “Shield budding” plum is the better rootstock.


Prunus domestica (European plum)

P. Salicina (Japanese plum) F: rosaceae

· Variety : Santarosa, Victoria.

· Propagation by shield budding.

· Wild apricot (Zardalu) is better root stock.


Prunus armeniace F: Rosaceae

· The wild apricot called “Zardalu”.


Prunus avium F: Rosaceae

· Sweet cherry used as desert.

· Sour cherry – P. Cerasus used for cooking and canning.

Bits: –

· Hydrophillic colloids are derive from proteins.

· Non climacteric fruit – citrus, apple.

· A mild injury caused to the vessels to stimulate resting buds – Notching.

· Two (or) more buds if developed of the same node of a fruit trees the buds are called “accessory” buds.

· While planting cutting in the nursery bed root polarity has to be maintained.

· Pollen supply – polliniser.

· It is very important with root cutting to maintain polarity.

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