Basics about Agricultural crops

Agricultural crops

1. Rice :-

• Breeding varieties which can effectively photosynthesize even under low light intensity.
• Traditional varieties raised in tropics are called “Indicas” (Long in duration).
• “Japonicas” are the varieties of temperate zone.
• “Javoanicas” are called bulk rice.
• In kharif, dry nursery gives higher yields compared to wet nursery.
• Dapog nursery: Raising the seedlings without their roots coming into contact with soil.

2. Wheat :-

• Wheat contains more proteins than others and the protein is ‘gluten’.
T. dicoccum – (Emmer wheat)
• When seed is dropped in furrows by hand it is called “Kera”. Implement attached to plough
is “Pora”.
• At the “Jointing stage”, the stem becomes visible with distinct nodes.
• Wheat crop is highly senstive to temperature.

3. Maize:-

(Queen of cereals) – C4 Plant
• Maize Protein – ‘Zein’. It is defecient in essential amino acids – Lysin and Tryptophan.
• Dent corn – Zea mays indentata – The depression (or) dent in the crown of the seed.
• Flint corn – Mainly grown in India.
• Pop corn – Human consumption – Hard starch.
• Waxy corn – waxy appearance because of “amylopectin”.
• Grand growth stage knee high stage male infloresconce – Tassel, female -cob.
• In Dehradun valley “Zing” terracing is practiced – 75% maize in Rice slope – 25%.

4. Sorghum:-

· Tolerate high temperature better than any other crop and a short day plant. It can also
tolerate water logging better than other crops like Rice.
· Toxic substance – Dhurrin (HCN).
· Maghi jowar – Khammam
· Dibbling is practiced in dry lands.
· Growth stage – 1; Vegetative period; GS2 – Critical stage
GS3 – grain filling period.
· CSH – 1 is the best for rationing.
· Sorghum toxic effect is removing by Indigo (or) wild Indigo / green manuring.

5. Ragi:-

Eleusine coracana (Birds foot millet)
· It is a major millet. It is very rich source of “Ca”.
· Heaven of millet – Africa.
· Punasa – AKP – 2.
Pedda panta – VZM – 2, Sarada, Kalyani.
Pyru – VZM – 2.
· It is the only crop which can thrive under warm temperature and cool temperature prevailing
in hilly regions.
· Sowing in stallion furrows – Karnataka

6. Bajra :-

Pennisetum americanum (cat tail millet, Bull rusk millet, Spiked millet)
7. Korra :- Selaria italica (Dry land good crop) (Fox tail millet)
Agricultural College, Bapatla
SC, ST, OBC & Minority Coaching Cell 28
· It is a mixed crop with cotton in Rayalaseema.
Variga:- Panicum miliaceum – Proso millet.
Sama :- Panicum miliare – Little millet.
Arika :- Paspalum scrobiculatum – Kodo millet (Nivas – 1 varieties)

Fodder :-

1. Lucerne :

Medicago sativa, also known as alfalfa Queen of fodder.
· Excess of feeding of Lucerne develops bloat (or) tympanitis (gas accumulation in stomach).
· Dodder is a parasite on Lucerne plant.

2. Berseem :-

Trifolium alexandrium
Egyptian clover (or) King of fodder crop.
· Excess feeding causes bloat (or) tympanitis.
· Pusa gaint variety is treated with calchicine for good germination.
· The most important weed in berseem is chicory.

3. Stylo :-

Styloxanthus sp S. hamata

4. Su babul:-

Leucaena leucocephala – Perennial fodder
· Toxic substance – “Mimosine”. It is drought and salt tolerant fodder.
· “Hay” is the dry form of forage crop that is cut before it is dead ripe and dried for storage
without any appreciable loss of nutrients value.
· The principle grasses for hay making are Cynodon dactylom.

· Silage: –

It is the product which is formed when the forage plant material is put in a place
when it can ferment in the absence of the air.

· Ensiling –

It is the process of making silage.

· Haylage –

The portions of the forage material that remain after making hay is generally
known as haylage which is used for feeding the cattle.
· The best stage for harvesting of fodder Maize is “dough stage”.
· If wheat sowing is delayed “Shallow depth of sowing” is practiced.
· Rainfed rice is very common in ‘Assam”.
· Mid season drainage in rice crop discourages the development of late tillers.
· “Butyric acid” gives bad odour to silage.
· Grain straw ratio in new plant types is 1:1.
· State first in Sorghum production is Maharastra.
· Resistance to pests and diseases is after provided by the mineral.
· Double gene dwarf wheat variety is Kalyanasona, Triple gene dwarf is Hira.
· White grained finger millet is Hamsa.
· Resistant rice variety for drought is MTU – 17.
· Preservative used in silage making is Sodium metabisulphate. Acid in preservation is Lactic

1. Red gram :–

Cajanus cajan – First important Pulse crop of South India.
PDM – 1 variety Andhra region.

2. Green gram:- Vigna radiata.

3. Black gram:- Vigna mungo

4. Bengal gram :- Cicer arietinum

· Seeds are recommended to cure “Scurvy”.
· Malic and oxalic acids collected from green leaves.

· There are two types

1. Desi type – Small size seed and the rough seed coat is colored.
2. Kabuli type – Large size seed and white seed coat.
· “Jyothi” suitable for all districts in the state.

5. Cowpea:-

“Vigna sinensis” (or) V. unguiculata
· Cowpea withstand heat and heavy rains. It is highly drought resistant.
· Cowpea is a cover crop and soil conservation crop.
· “Russian gaint” useful for fodder purpose.

6. Horse gram:-

Macrotylomia uniflorus – Test crop for drought.

7. Soy bean :-

Glycine max
· The best time of planting was found to be June, 1.
· Intermediate varieties were found to yield higher than determinate varieties.

8. Groundnut : –

Arachis hypogeae
· The highest yield in “Zimbambway”.
· ‘Sandy loam’ are best suited for cultivation.
· Deficiency of ‘Ca’ leads to “Pops”. ‘S’ is required for the thiomine of oil.
· Pegging and pod development are the moisture sensitive stages.
· Pigeon pea is intercropped with Ground nut in the ratio of 1:5 (or) 1:7.

9. Gingelly:-

Sesamum indicum
· Oil % = 46-52% In India – U.P. (1st)
A.P. – Karimnagar.
· White seeded varieties are grown in Telangana region. White seeded have high oil than
black seeded varieties.
· ANGRAU released gingelly variety is “Madhavi”.
· Sesamum + Red gram in 5:1 ratio.
· Oldest oil seed crop is gingelly.

10. Castor :-

Recinus communis
· Important industrial oil seed crop.
· Castor oil contains a very high percentage of hydroxyl fatty acid known as “Recinoleic
· Castor oil is used as a purgative. In dyeing industries, it is used for the preparation of
“Turkey red”.
· It is not used as cattle feed because of toxic behavior of rice “(an albumin) and ricenine” (an
· Brazil – first. India first in area and second in production .
Andhra Pradesh first in area. ‘Nalgonda’ first in Andhra Pradesh.
· Aruna – mutant of HC – 8; ‘Sowbhagya’ – long duration variety.
· Spacing for Aruna castor is 60 X 30 cm, Aruna (nipped) – 45 X 30cm.
· Nipping of axillary buds is practiced when castor is grown for seed production. Yield
increased by 30% due to was observed.

11. Sunflower:-

Helianthus annces
· Origin – Peru (or) Mexico.
· It is short duration, Photo insensitive crop.
· It is a rich source of “Linoleic acid” – 64%.
· “Sunrise selection” is a Canadian variety.

12. Safflower:-

Carthamus tinctorius
· Linoleic acid – 78%
· Unsaturated fatty acids of safflower lowers the “Serum Cholestrol”.
· Oil is used in the preparation of “Roghan” which is used in the preservation of leather and
the production of water proof cloth.
· In India, the crop is mainly grown in Maharashtra.

13. Niger : –

Guizotia abyssinica
· Oil – 37-43%
· India is the chief niger producing country. It is mainly grown in M.P.
· “Oodacamund” – 120 – 130 days.

14. Linseed :–

Linum usitatissimum Var. Kiran
· It is a dual purpose crop grown for oil as well as fibre; oil – 33 – 47%.
· Linseed oil is very excellent drying oil.
M.P. – first
· Linseed is susceptible to weed competition through out its growth period.

15. Mustard and Rapeseed :-

(Brassica sp)
· Rapeseed and mustard are the major Rabi oil seed crops of India.
· It is grown as oil seed crop as well as condiment.
· In the tanning industry, mustard oil is used for softening of leather.
· Refined oil called Colza is used in Europe.
· China is the largest producer of these crops
India – second, U.P. – First.
· Mustard – Brassica juncea
Rapeseed – B. compestris F: Cruciferae.
· Sarson – India colza; Toria – Rape, Rai – Mustard.
· These crops neither tolerant to drought nor water logging.
· Toria is the earliest brassica oil seed crop to be harvested.

· India is said to be the original home of Sugarcane.
1. Noble cane (or) garden cane – Saccharum officinarum
2. Chinese cane – S. sinensis
3. North India cane – S. barbens
4. Wild canes of Asia – S. spontaneum
5. Wild canes of Gunea – S. robustum
· An implement known as “Ridge mar” has been designed to work a tractor without initial
ploughing of the fields and prepare deep trenches.
· “Three budded setts” are the most widely practiced method of planting.
· Method of planting in Anakapalli region – ‘Trench planting’.
Wrapping – It is the process of twisting the bottom leaves a round the cane.
Propping – The Sugarcane is supported by bamboos to prevent the plant from lodging.
· If the brix recorded by hand refractometer is 18% (or) more the cane is said to be mature.
· For recording the brix “Hand refractometer” is used and jar extraction of juice “Pouch
piercer” is used.
· “Lime sucrate” is one of the clarificant used for neutralising the juice and flocculation of
collidal particles in the juice.

Sugar beet:-

Beta vulgaris
· F.C Achard is father of the sugar beet industry.
· 40% of world sugar stoma sugar beet, 60% of world sugar is from Sugar cane.
· Sugar recovery in Sugar beet is 15-16%; in Sugar cane 8 – 10%.

Tobacco : –

Nicotiana tobacum
· N. rustica is used for hookah, chewing and snuff.
· CTRI – Rajahmundry
· The removal of the flower bud along (or) along with some of the top leaves of the plant is
known as “Topping”.
· After topping the axillary buds grows and the removal of buds is known as “desuckering”.
· Pit curing is followed for chewing and hookah tobacco.


· Gossypium hirsutum (50%) G. barbadense (negligible area)
· G. arboreum (29%) G. herbaceum (21%) – Chro. No.13
· Temperature for germination 150C, during the period of floral bud initiation 210C.
· Seed cotton – ‘Kapas’. Topping is also done.
· Ginning % – It is the out – turn of lint to seed cotton
· Sample quality – Expressed in counts. A count is the number hanks (840 yards each) found
in the one pound of yarn.
· Neppiness – the defect in yarn. Due to the fibres, tiny krots are formed in the yarn.
Varalakshmi – Hybrid cotton.
Saraswathi – Desi cotton


“Hibiscus cannabinus”. H. subdariffa F: Malvaceae
· A.P. first in production
· Mesta Research Station – Amudalavalasa – Srikakulum.
· Ideal stage for harvesting is flowering stage.
· 16% fibre – by weight of dry stalks
40% fibre – by weight of fresh stalks.


Bambay hemp (or) Banaras hemp – Crotalaria juncea.
· Proper stage of harvest – ‘Pod formation’.
· A common weed associated with sun hemp is ipormea sp.


Agave sisalina – Creamy white fibre
· It serve as hedge cum fibre plant.
· Propagation through “Suckers and Bulbis”.
· Flowering in case of Agave is called “Poling”.


Corchorus capsulari; C. olitorius, F: Tiliaceae
· Retting : It is the biological process by which the fibre of the bark gets loosen and separated
easily from the woody stalk due to removal of pectins, gums, and other mucilaginous
· Retting is due to combined action of water and microorganisms.


· U.S.A produce largest oil seeds in the world.
· Superior quality Jaggary is obtained from the Sugar cane variety is CO – 7706.
· In tobacco, burning quality is positively related to ‘K’ content of leaf.
· The long keeping quality of gingelly oil is due to the presence of antioxidant ‘Sesemolin’.
· Sesamum is highly sensitive to frost.
· In Groundnut, oil content is positively related with temperature.
· The short fibres covering the cotton seed are termed as “Fuzz”.
· A pulse crop without root nodules – “Rajmah”.

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