Basics of Bulb,Tuber and Leafy vegetable

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Bulb crops

F: Amaryllidaceae – winter vegetables.

Onion:

Allium cepa O: N.W. India.

· Flowering shoot – scape.

· It has pungency due to the presence of “Ally propyl disulphide”.

· Red colour is due to the presence of pigment – “Anthocyanin” and yellow colour in same variety due to the presence of another.

· Pigment – ‘quercetin”.

· Variety: Pusa red – fairly resistant to onion thrips – IARI.

· Bellary bia, Bellary red, Poona red, Potna red – Local variety.

IIHR – Arka Kalyan; Arka Nikatan: Arka pragathi.

· Physiological problem – Bolting.

Seed production: Bulb to seed method: seed to seed method for nucleus and foundation seed production

· Garlic:

Allium sativum

· Smaller bulbs known as cloves.

· The typical flavor of garlic is due to the presence of chemical “Allecin” plus “Diallyl disulphide”.

· The local strains that are commonly grown are 1. Jawari gaddi 2. Rajella gaddi

· Leek: Allium porrum

· Leek is an bulb forming member of the onion family.

· Variety: “London flag and American flag”.

Tuber crops:

· Potato:

Solanum tuberosum

F: Solanaceae

O: South America.

· More than 50% from Uttar Pradesh.

· It is a ‘treasure house of carbohydrates”.

· It has the underground stem know as “Stolon”.

· Variety : CPRI – Simla.
1. Kufri chandramukhi – suitable for making chips.
2. Kufri Alankar
3. Kufri Jyothi – resistant to late blight.
Kufri Muthu – Immune to late blight and wart disease.
Kufri sheetman – frost resistant.
Kufri Chamalkar – Rest to early blight.
Kufri sindhuri – Rest to late blight and frost.

· Potatoes stored at less than 00C suffer from interval breakdown of tissues known as “Black heart”.

Root tuber

Sweet potato.

Ipomea batatus

F: Convolvulaceae.

· Sweet potato is grown from “Sprouts”.

· Vine cutting are generally used as propagation material.

· It is one of the most drought resistant vegetable.

· Variety: Pusa Saffaid; Pusa lal, Pusa Sunhari – IARI. Rich in carotene.

· Local variety: Bhadrakali, Sanrat.

Colocasia esculenta 

F: Araceae

O: India

· Acridity is due to the presence of needle like crystals of “calcium oxalate”.

 Elephant foot yarm

Amorphophallus compenulrtus.

F: Araceae.

· “Gajendra” is important variety.

· It is grown from small tuberous out growths on corm called as “Cormels”.

Tapioca (Cassava)

Manihot esculenta

F: Euphorbiaceae

· ‘H’ – Series, Srivisaka, Srisahya.

· Propagated by stem cutting.

· Yam (or) Dioscorea

Dioscorea alata

F: Dioscoreaceae

· Its extract is used for treatment of “arthities”.

· Leaf Vegetables:

Amaranthus sp.

F: Amaranthaceae.

A. tricolor; A. blitum (growing in summer season)

· Indian spinach (Batchali) – Basella alba F: Basellaceae.

· Mint (Podina) – Mentha viridis F: Labiateae

· Chukkakura (Sorrel) – Rumex vesicarnis F: polygonaceae

· Gogu (or) Rosella – Hibiscus Cannabinus F: Malvaceae

· Fenugreek (Mentikura) – Trigonella foenum graceum F: leguminaceae.

Variety:

1. The common menthi.
2. Kasthuri (or) Chama menthi – Pods are stickle shaped.

Palak (Beet leaf)

Beta vulgaris variety: Bengalensis F: chenopodiaceae

Variety : Pusa Jyothi, All sreen.

Salad crops:

· The vegetables the are consumed uncooked are known as “Salad crop”.

· Letuce: Lactuca sativa F: Compositae.

Seed : Achene.

· High temperature cause ‘tipburs’.

Variety: 1. Great lakes – Rest. To tip burn.

· Cellery:

Apium graveolens F: umbelliferae

Variety : Standard bearer.

Ornamental gardening: –

· Plants can be grouped together in various way to give an aesthetic effect. Each such grouping is called as ‘feature’.

· Fence is the outermost boundary. Eg: Prosopis julifera, Casuariua equisetifolia.

· Hedges are useful to divide the garden into section to line the drives so as to direct the visitor to a central object. Eg: Lantana camera.

· Edges are grown along the paths and around the flower buds. Eg: Alternanthera sp., Eupatorium cannabinum.

· The path should be slightly raised over the ground level. It may be laid with gravel (or) brick which are careful painted when it is called a “paved path” covered with broken slabs when it is known as ‘crozy path’.

· Lawn forms the background colour in the garden. Eg: Cyanodon dactylon

· When plants are grown in a row, but not trimmed the feature is called a border.

· Borders are planted to different sps; while hedges are generally planted a single sps.

· The shrub borders may be grown along wall (or) in front of fence of tree, but are not in a row the feature is known as “Shrubery”. Eg: Croton.

· “Festuce” is quick growing and the finest of lawn grasses.

· A flower bed should be behind the lawn (or) in middle.

· Plants of different colour foliage – Carpet beds.

· Topiaries – Plants which can stand severe and constant pruning tammed into glubes, Ovals, animals, furniture etc. Eg: Casuarina equisitifolia

· Creepers trailed arches – Arch.

· When a path is covered by a creeper trailed on the arbour it is known as pergola. Eg: Bouganvillea

· Shades having plants are grown in a structure called the “fern house” (or) fernery”.

· Glass structures are called conservatories (or) glass houses.

· Orchids are humid tropical and subtropical plants loving shade.

· Terristrial orchids grown in soil. Epiphytic orchids grown on branches of trees. Most orchids develop “Pseudo bulbs” for storage of water.

· Pot galleries – on the steps of which ‘potted plants’ are arranged.

· Aquatic plants are grown in lilly pools. Eg: Pistia, Water hyacinth.

· Rocking. Eg: Opuntia, Agave.

· Avenue trees and background trees: Trees are tallest features in the garden.

· Avenue trees help to guide the visitors to an object. Eg: Yellow gulmohar, Neem tree.

· Parks are the lungs of the city.

· Gardens of 10 acres for every 1000 population.

· Gardens are said to be the “Yard sticks of culture”.

· Styles in planning:
1. Formal (or) artificial
2. Informal (or) natural
3. Free – style gardening.

· In the formal gardens there is bilateral symmetry of features. Eg: Mughul garden

· Informal garden – Imitates nature. Eg: Japanese garden


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