F: Amaryllidaceae – winter vegetables.
Allium cepa O: N.W. India.
· Flowering shoot – scape.
· It has pungency due to the presence of “Ally propyl disulphide”.
· Red colour is due to the presence of pigment – “Anthocyanin” and yellow colour in same variety due to the presence of another.
· Pigment – ‘quercetin”.
· Variety: Pusa red – fairly resistant to onion thrips – IARI.
· Bellary bia, Bellary red, Poona red, Potna red – Local variety.
IIHR – Arka Kalyan; Arka Nikatan: Arka pragathi.
· Physiological problem – Bolting.
Seed production: Bulb to seed method: seed to seed method for nucleus and foundation seed production
· Smaller bulbs known as cloves.
· The typical flavor of garlic is due to the presence of chemical “Allecin” plus “Diallyl disulphide”.
· The local strains that are commonly grown are 1. Jawari gaddi 2. Rajella gaddi
· Leek: Allium porrum
· Leek is an bulb forming member of the onion family.
· Variety: “London flag and American flag”.
O: South America.
· More than 50% from Uttar Pradesh.
· It is a ‘treasure house of carbohydrates”.
· It has the underground stem know as “Stolon”.
· Variety : CPRI – Simla.
1. Kufri chandramukhi – suitable for making chips.
2. Kufri Alankar
3. Kufri Jyothi – resistant to late blight.
Kufri Muthu – Immune to late blight and wart disease.
Kufri sheetman – frost resistant.
Kufri Chamalkar – Rest to early blight.
Kufri sindhuri – Rest to late blight and frost.
· Potatoes stored at less than 00C suffer from interval breakdown of tissues known as “Black heart”.
· Sweet potato is grown from “Sprouts”.
· Vine cutting are generally used as propagation material.
· It is one of the most drought resistant vegetable.
· Variety: Pusa Saffaid; Pusa lal, Pusa Sunhari – IARI. Rich in carotene.
· Local variety: Bhadrakali, Sanrat.
· Acridity is due to the presence of needle like crystals of “calcium oxalate”.
Elephant foot yarm
· “Gajendra” is important variety.
· It is grown from small tuberous out growths on corm called as “Cormels”.
· ‘H’ – Series, Srivisaka, Srisahya.
· Propagated by stem cutting.
· Yam (or) Dioscorea
· Its extract is used for treatment of “arthities”.
· Leaf Vegetables:
A. tricolor; A. blitum (growing in summer season)
· Indian spinach (Batchali) – Basella alba F: Basellaceae.
· Mint (Podina) – Mentha viridis F: Labiateae
· Chukkakura (Sorrel) – Rumex vesicarnis F: polygonaceae
· Gogu (or) Rosella – Hibiscus Cannabinus F: Malvaceae
· Fenugreek (Mentikura) – Trigonella foenum graceum F: leguminaceae.
1. The common menthi.
2. Kasthuri (or) Chama menthi – Pods are stickle shaped.
Palak (Beet leaf)
Beta vulgaris variety: Bengalensis F: chenopodiaceae
Variety : Pusa Jyothi, All sreen.
· The vegetables the are consumed uncooked are known as “Salad crop”.
· Letuce: Lactuca sativa F: Compositae.
Seed : Achene.
· High temperature cause ‘tipburs’.
Variety: 1. Great lakes – Rest. To tip burn.
Apium graveolens F: umbelliferae
Variety : Standard bearer.
Ornamental gardening: –
· Plants can be grouped together in various way to give an aesthetic effect. Each such grouping is called as ‘feature’.
· Fence is the outermost boundary. Eg: Prosopis julifera, Casuariua equisetifolia.
· Hedges are useful to divide the garden into section to line the drives so as to direct the visitor to a central object. Eg: Lantana camera.
· Edges are grown along the paths and around the flower buds. Eg: Alternanthera sp., Eupatorium cannabinum.
· The path should be slightly raised over the ground level. It may be laid with gravel (or) brick which are careful painted when it is called a “paved path” covered with broken slabs when it is known as ‘crozy path’.
· Lawn forms the background colour in the garden. Eg: Cyanodon dactylon
· When plants are grown in a row, but not trimmed the feature is called a border.
· Borders are planted to different sps; while hedges are generally planted a single sps.
· The shrub borders may be grown along wall (or) in front of fence of tree, but are not in a row the feature is known as “Shrubery”. Eg: Croton.
· “Festuce” is quick growing and the finest of lawn grasses.
· A flower bed should be behind the lawn (or) in middle.
· Plants of different colour foliage – Carpet beds.
· Topiaries – Plants which can stand severe and constant pruning tammed into glubes, Ovals, animals, furniture etc. Eg: Casuarina equisitifolia
· Creepers trailed arches – Arch.
· When a path is covered by a creeper trailed on the arbour it is known as pergola. Eg: Bouganvillea
· Shades having plants are grown in a structure called the “fern house” (or) fernery”.
· Glass structures are called conservatories (or) glass houses.
· Orchids are humid tropical and subtropical plants loving shade.
· Terristrial orchids grown in soil. Epiphytic orchids grown on branches of trees. Most orchids develop “Pseudo bulbs” for storage of water.
· Pot galleries – on the steps of which ‘potted plants’ are arranged.
· Aquatic plants are grown in lilly pools. Eg: Pistia, Water hyacinth.
· Rocking. Eg: Opuntia, Agave.
· Avenue trees and background trees: Trees are tallest features in the garden.
· Avenue trees help to guide the visitors to an object. Eg: Yellow gulmohar, Neem tree.
· Parks are the lungs of the city.
· Gardens of 10 acres for every 1000 population.
· Gardens are said to be the “Yard sticks of culture”.
· Styles in planning:
1. Formal (or) artificial
2. Informal (or) natural
3. Free – style gardening.
· In the formal gardens there is bilateral symmetry of features. Eg: Mughul garden
· Informal garden – Imitates nature. Eg: Japanese garden