· Plants can be grouped together in various way to give an aesthetic effect. Each such grouping is called as ‘feature’.
· Fence is the outermost boundary. Eg: Prosopis julifera, Casuariua equisetifolia.
· Hedges are useful to divide the garden into section to line the drives so as to direct the visitor to a central object. Eg: Lantana camera
· Edges are grown along the paths and around the flower buds. Eg: Alternanthera sp., Eupatorium cannabinum.
· The path should be slightly raised over the ground level. It may be laid with gravel (or) brick which are careful painted when it is called a “paved path” covered with broken slabs when it is known as ‘crozy path’.
· Lawn forms the background colour in the garden. Eg: Cyanodon dactylon
· When plants are grown in a row, but not trimmed the feature is called a border.
· Borders are planted to different sps; while hedges are generally planted a single sps.
· The shrub borders may be grown along wall (or) in front of fence of tree, but are not in a row the feature is known as “Shrubery”.Eg: Croton.
· “Festuce” is quick growing and the finest of lawn grasses.
· A flower bed should be behind the lawn (or) in middle.
· Plants of different colour foliage – Carpet beds.
· Topiaries – Plants which can stand severe and constant pruning tammed into glubes, Ovals, animals, furniture etc. Eg: Casuarina equisitifolia
· Creepers trailed arches – Arch.
· When a path is covered by a creeper trailed on the arbour it is known as pergola. Eg: Bouganvillea
· Shades having plants are grown in a structure called the “fern house” (or) fernery”.
· Glass structures are called conservatories (or) glass houses.
· Orchids are humid tropical and subtropical plants loving shade.
· Terristrial orchids grown in soil. Epiphytic orchids grown on branches of trees. Most orchids develop “Pseudo bulbs” for storage of water.
· Pot galleries – on the steps of which ‘potted plants’ are arranged.
· Aquatic plants are grown in lilly pools. Eg: Pistia, Water hyacinth.
· Rocking. Eg: Opuntia, Agave.
· Avenue trees and background trees: Trees are tallest features in the garden.
· Avenue trees help to guide the visitors to an object. Eg: Yellow gulmohar, Neem tree.
· Parks are the lungs of the city.
· Gardens of 10 acres for every 1000 population.
· Gardens are said to be the “Yard sticks of culture”.
· Styles in planning:
1. Formal (or) artificial
2. Informal (or) natural
3. Free – style gardening.
· In the formal gardens there is bilateral symmetry of features. Eg: Mughul garden
· Informal garden – Imitates nature. Eg: Japanese garden
Queen of flowers.
· Bloom only in the spring and summer therefore called summer roses – Rosa gigantean.
· Autumn rose – R. indica – Flowers throughout the year.
1. Hybrid teas – Crosses between Tea roses and hybrid perpetual.
2. Floribundas – Crosses between polyanthes roses and hybrid roses.
3. Grandiflora – Crosses between floribundas and hybrid teas.
4. Polyanthes – Suitable for edging.
· Rose may be propagated by seed, layering, cutting, budding and grafting.
· Seed propagation is done only in cold regions for production of new varieties. Most common method of propagation is by “Cutting”.
· For the plains “Edward” is the best root stocks and for hills R. multiflora is preferred.
· The time of blooming can be suitably adjusted according to the date of pruning. This is called “Staggered pruning”.
· The solvent “Benzene” is used for extraction of rose oil.
· Rose gultmand is preferred for making “rose water”.
J. auricultum – Mullai
J. grandiflorum – Jathimalli (or) Jaji malli – It is grown for its. Highly fragment flowers.
J. Sambac – Gundu malli – commercially cultivated (or) ‘Arabian jasmine’.
· Jasmines are propagted through cutting (or) by layering.
· The essential oil of Jasmine is known in commerce as “Jasmine concrete”.
· The oil is extracted from Jasmine flowers by the solvent extraction process. “Petroleum ether” is used as the solvent.
· Jasmine concrete is purified by alcohol by means vaccum distillation to produce “Jasmine absolute”.
· Propagated by seeds. They lack sepals.
· “Autumn queen” in USA.
· National flower of Japan.
· Anemone – Flowers with a tubular central disc.
· Pompon – Very small flowers without any visible centers.
· For decoration and flower shows incured “Chrysanthemum” are used.
· Rooting is practiced.
Tageter creeta – African marigold (grown commercially for cut flowers)
I. Putula – French marigold – Variety: Gypsy.
· Roots and leaves have insecitidal properties.
· F1 hybrid – ‘Climase’.
· Single signet (T. Tenuifolia) ideal for edgings and rock gardening.
· Single flowered varieties are most fragments and are used for commercial cultivation.
· Dhavanam (Artimisia) – Artimisia pollens.
· All vegetables belong to “Angiosperms”.
· Vegetable forcing garden concerned with the production of vegetables out of their normal season.
· Bitterground – mimordica charentia; Musk melon – cucumis melo.
· The ray florets are curved backwards and downwards in reflexed type of chrysanthemum.
· The inflorescence of tube rose – Spike, Propagated by Bulbs.
· Edible part of muskmelon – epicarp.
· The variety of Ashgard released by APAU – Shakti.
· Non – pungent chillies are commonly known as “Sweet pepper”.
· In peas wrinkled seeded varieties are more suitable for processing.
· Vegetable rich in protein – Peas.
· Oleri culture literally means “Pot herbs”.
· Floating vegetable gardens are seen in “Dal” lake of Kashmir valley.
· For drying chillies are harvested at red ripe stage.
· Semi double type of Jasmine – Dontharamalli.
· Exhaustion of carbohydrates results in irregular bearing in Mango crop.
· Bud fertility in grape is determined by dissecting the buds under microscope to assess the presence (or) absence of cluster primordia.
· ‘K’ element tends to reduce fruit cracking in Banana.
· “Pumello” is a monoembryonic citrus fruit.
· Sitaphal plant is not eaten by goats due to the presence of “Anonains”.
· Atemoya – Anonus squamosa X A. Cherimoya
Amrapali – Dashari X Neelum (opposite to mallika) – For high density planting.
Manjeera – Neelum X Rumari.
Arkavathi – Black champa X Thompson seedless.
Arka kanctan – Arab – E –Shai X Queen of vine gourds.
Seed dormancy in sithaphal cause stone fruit formation.
Citrus sps. Resistant to frost – Trifoliate orange.
· Best planting material in pine apple – ‘Slips’.
· For earliest fruit grown by man is said to the Datepalm.
· The fruit set in mango carried to maturity – 0.1%.
· Thanges variety recommended for high density percentage – Amrapali.
· Wood apple – Feronia elephant.