Basics of Ornamental gardening

Ornamental gardening

Ornamental gardening

· Plants can be grouped together in various way to give an aesthetic effect. Each such grouping is called as ‘feature’.

· Fence is the outermost boundary. Eg: Prosopis julifera, Casuariua equisetifolia.

· Hedges are useful to divide the garden into section to line the drives so as to direct the visitor to a central object. Eg: Lantana camera

· Edges are grown along the paths and around the flower buds. Eg: Alternanthera sp., Eupatorium cannabinum.

· The path should be slightly raised over the ground level. It may be laid with gravel (or) brick which are careful painted when it is called a “paved path” covered with broken slabs when it is known as ‘crozy path’.

· Lawn forms the background colour in the garden. Eg: Cyanodon dactylon

· When plants are grown in a row, but not trimmed the feature is called a border.

· Borders are planted to different sps; while hedges are generally planted a single sps.

· The shrub borders may be grown along wall (or) in front of fence of tree, but are not in a row the feature is known as “Shrubery”.Eg: Croton.

· “Festuce” is quick growing and the finest of lawn grasses.

· A flower bed should be behind the lawn (or) in middle.

· Plants of different colour foliage – Carpet beds.

· Topiaries – Plants which can stand severe and constant pruning tammed into glubes, Ovals, animals, furniture etc. Eg: Casuarina equisitifolia

· Creepers trailed arches – Arch.

· When a path is covered by a creeper trailed on the arbour it is known as pergola. Eg: Bouganvillea

· Shades having plants are grown in a structure called the “fern house” (or) fernery”.

· Glass structures are called conservatories (or) glass houses.

· Orchids are humid tropical and subtropical plants loving shade.

· Terristrial orchids grown in soil. Epiphytic orchids grown on branches of trees. Most orchids develop “Pseudo bulbs” for storage of water.

· Pot galleries – on the steps of which ‘potted plants’ are arranged.

· Aquatic plants are grown in lilly pools. Eg: Pistia, Water hyacinth.

· Rocking. Eg: Opuntia, Agave.

· Avenue trees and background trees: Trees are tallest features in the garden.

· Avenue trees help to guide the visitors to an object. Eg: Yellow gulmohar, Neem tree.

· Parks are the lungs of the city.

· Gardens of 10 acres for every 1000 population.

· Gardens are said to be the “Yard sticks of culture”.

· Styles in planning:
1. Formal (or) artificial
2. Informal (or) natural
3. Free – style gardening.

· In the formal gardens there is bilateral symmetry of features. Eg: Mughul garden

· Informal garden – Imitates nature. Eg: Japanese garden


Rosa indica

F: Rosaceae

Queen of flowers.

· Bloom only in the spring and summer therefore called summer roses – Rosa gigantean.

· Autumn rose – R. indica – Flowers throughout the year.

1. Hybrid teas – Crosses between Tea roses and hybrid perpetual.

2. Floribundas – Crosses between polyanthes roses and hybrid roses.

3. Grandiflora – Crosses between floribundas and hybrid teas.

4. Polyanthes – Suitable for edging.

· Rose may be propagated by seed, layering, cutting, budding and grafting.

· Seed propagation is done only in cold regions for production of new varieties. Most common method of propagation is by “Cutting”.

· For the plains “Edward” is the best root stocks and for hills R. multiflora is preferred.

· The time of blooming can be suitably adjusted according to the date of pruning. This is called “Staggered pruning”.

· The solvent “Benzene” is used for extraction of rose oil.

· Rose gultmand is preferred for making “rose water”.

Jasmine :

Jasminum sps.

F: Oleaceae

J. auricultum – Mullai

J. grandiflorum – Jathimalli (or) Jaji malli – It is grown for its. Highly fragment flowers.

J. Sambac – Gundu malli – commercially cultivated (or) ‘Arabian jasmine’.

· Jasmines are propagted through cutting (or) by layering.

· The essential oil of Jasmine is known in commerce as “Jasmine concrete”.

· The oil is extracted from Jasmine flowers by the solvent extraction process. “Petroleum ether” is used as the solvent.

· Jasmine concrete is purified by alcohol by means vaccum distillation to produce “Jasmine absolute”.

Crossandra :

Crossandra infundibuliformis

· Propagated by seeds. They lack sepals.

· Chrysanthemum:

Chrysanthemum sp.

F: Compositae

· “Autumn queen” in USA.

· National flower of Japan.

· Anemone – Flowers with a tubular central disc.

· Pompon – Very small flowers without any visible centers.

· For decoration and flower shows incured “Chrysanthemum” are used.

· Rooting is practiced.


Tageter creeta – African marigold (grown commercially for cut flowers)

I. Putula – French marigold – Variety: Gypsy.

· Roots and leaves have insecitidal properties.

· F1 hybrid – ‘Climase’.

· Single signet (T. Tenuifolia) ideal for edgings and rock gardening.

Tuberose :

Polyanthus tuberose

F: Amaryllidaceae

· Single flowered varieties are most fragments and are used for commercial cultivation.

· Dhavanam (Artimisia) – Artimisia pollens.

· All vegetables belong to “Angiosperms”.


· Vegetable forcing garden concerned with the production of vegetables out of their normal season.

· Bitterground – mimordica charentia; Musk melon – cucumis melo.

· The ray florets are curved backwards and downwards in reflexed type of chrysanthemum.

· The inflorescence of tube rose – Spike, Propagated by Bulbs.

· Edible part of muskmelon – epicarp.

· The variety of Ashgard released by APAU – Shakti.

· Non – pungent chillies are commonly known as “Sweet pepper”.

· In peas wrinkled seeded varieties are more suitable for processing.

· Vegetable rich in protein – Peas.

· Oleri culture literally means “Pot herbs”.

· Floating vegetable gardens are seen in “Dal” lake of Kashmir valley.

· For drying chillies are harvested at red ripe stage.

· Semi double type of Jasmine – Dontharamalli.

· Exhaustion of carbohydrates results in irregular bearing in Mango crop.

· Bud fertility in grape is determined by dissecting the buds under microscope to assess the presence (or) absence of cluster primordia.

· ‘K’ element tends to reduce fruit cracking in Banana.

· “Pumello” is a monoembryonic citrus fruit.

· Sitaphal plant is not eaten by goats due to the presence of “Anonains”.

· Atemoya – Anonus squamosa X A. Cherimoya

Amrapali – Dashari X Neelum (opposite to mallika) – For high density planting.

Manjeera – Neelum X Rumari.

Arkavathi – Black champa X Thompson seedless.

Arka kanctan – Arab – E –Shai X Queen of vine gourds.

Seed dormancy in sithaphal cause stone fruit formation.

Citrus sps. Resistant to frost – Trifoliate orange.

· Best planting material in pine apple – ‘Slips’.

· For earliest fruit grown by man is said to the Datepalm.

· The fruit set in mango carried to maturity – 0.1%.

· Thanges variety recommended for high density percentage – Amrapali.

· Wood apple – Feronia elephant.

Leave a Reply