Basics of Vegetable Crops

Basics of Vegetable Crops

· Tomato :

Lycopersican esculentum F: Solanaceae O: Mexican regions of tropical America.

· Determinate type terminate in a flower bud and called ‘self topping’ (or) self pruning. Eg: Pusa early dwarf; CO – 1.

· Indeterminate types terminates in a vegetative bud and often requires staking. Eg: Pusa ruby, Best of all Sioux.

· Intermediate – Semi dwarf. Eg: S – 120, Roma.

Small fruited Tomato – L. pimpinellifolium

· Tomato has a yellow pigment – “carotene” and red pigment “Lycopene”.

· Varieties by IARI.

· Pusa ruby – Sioux X Improved meeruti X Red cloud.

· SL – 120 : A nematode resistant variety.

· Pusa red plum – escalentum X Pimpinellifolium

· Roma – for processing.

· F1 hybrids – Pusa ruby X Best of all.

· Boron – to prevent fruit cracking; Zinc for higher ascorbic acid content.

· A period of drought followed by a sudden heavy watering during the fruiting period may cause “cracking of fruits”. Boron deficiency also cause “cracking of fruits”.

· Extraction of seeds.

1. Fermentation method.

2. Acid (or) alkali method – Avoid discolouration – Acid method is quick and more commonly used.

· Intermediate deficiency of soil moisture and deficiency of calcium may cause “blossom end rot”.

· “Sioux” is resistant to growth cracks.

· “Catface” is an advanced stage of “blossom end rot”.

· Root – knot nematode is a common problem in “light red loams”.

· CO-3 (Maruthum) is a mutant variety.


Solanum melongene

F: Solanaceae

O: India

· “White brinjal” is said to be good for “diabetic patients”.

· Based on the length of the style four types of flowers.
1. Long style
2. Medium style.
3. Pseudo style.
4. True (or) short style.

· Long and Medium – Swollen ovary – fertile.

Pseudo and short – rudimentary ovary – do not set into fruits.

· S. auriculatum was found immune to little leaf virus.

Pusa purple long – Ratooning variety.
Pusa purple round – Rest to shoot borer
Pusa purple cluster – Rest to bacterial wilt.
· Bagyamathi – A.P.A.U. variety.
Akra kusumakar; Arka nauaneeth – Hybrid = IHR22-1-2-1 X supreme.
Pusa purple long X Hyderpur – Pusa anmol – F1 hybrid.


Capsicum annum


C. fruitscens

O: Peru

· Alkaloid – Capsicin; Red pigment – Capsathin.

· Variety: Sindhuri, N.P. 46A, Pusa jwala – root to mosaic and leaf curl.
Kiran – Rest. To thrips.

· Male sterility was observed in G2 – strain at lam; Guntur.

Bhendi (Okra)

Abelmeschus esculentus

F: Malvaceae

O: South Africa

· The extract obtained from the plant by seeking in water is used as a clarifier in the manufacture of jaggery.

· Fibre formation in the pod from 5th to 6th day of formation and a sudden increase in fibre content may be seen from 9th day.

· Variety: Selection – 1 – 1; highly rest. To yellow vein mosaic virus (YMV)
Pusa – Sawani: Tolerant to YVMV
Pusa – Makhmeli: Sus. To YVMV

· Abelmoschus manihot – wild species immume to YVMV.

· I.H.R.20-31 retain its tenderness upto 10th day.


Summer vegetable, Monoecious,

F: Cucurbitaceae.

· Dioecious cucurbits: Coccinia and pointed gourd.

· Fruit is “pepo”.

· Bitter principle – cucurbitacin (Mono glycoside).

· Gibberellic acid induces maleness.


cucumis sativus

O: India

· Variety : Japanese long green; Straight eight, Chine – IARI.

I.I.H.R.: Gemini excellent for salads

· IARI recommended F1 hybrid – ‘Pusa samyog’.

· The fruit maturity in cucumber is judged by the size but not the age of the fruit.

· Lower temperature causes “blenishes”.

Pumpkin and Squashes

cucurbita moschata

· Variety: Akra suryamukhi – rest. To common pest of fruit fly Arka Chandan.

· IARI : F1 hybrid – Pusa alankar.


O: India

· Ash gourd when ripe is used for sweet meat known as “Petha and Pethamash cakes”.

1. Bitter gourd.

2. Bottle gourd are rich in Iron.

· Sponge and ridge gourd contain gelatinous principle “Luffain”.

· Ridge gourd variety “Satputia” is a “hermaphrodite”.

· Pointed gourd and coccinia (Semi perennial vegetables)


coccinia indica

· Propagation through “Vine cutting” is the best method.

· Chow – Chow: Perennial vine – Vivipary.


Round melon – citrullus vulgris

O: India

Water melon varieties – IARI

1. New Hampshire midget – from U.S.A.

2. Ashaki yamato – Tetra ploid X diploids – seedless.

3. Sugar baby.

· “Tetra 2” is a stable tetraploid variety.

1. Arka jyoti: Hybrid between an American and Indian variety.
· Mukmelon and Snap melon when mature slips out easily form the vine leaving a circular
depression. This is known as “full slip stage”

Cole crops:

F: cruciferae.

· Cole crops are developed from wild cliff cabbage known as “Cole worts”.

· Cabbage:

Brassica oleracea variety Capiteta

· Edible portion – leaves covering a terminal bud is known as “Head”

· Variety:
I. Round head types:
a. Golden acre b. Pride of India.

· The cabbage varieties with large close head and wrinkled leaves are referred to as “Savoy cabbages”.

· Pusa drum head (IARI) is a selection from Japanese variety “EC6774”.

· Sudden heavy irrigation after a long dry spell may cause “bursting of head”.

· Seed production:-
1. Head intact method: only across cut is give to facilitate the emergence of the flower stalk.

2. Core intact method: Outside leaves are removed only the central portion is left.

3. Stump method: Head is removed and only the stump is left.

· The last two methods give higher yields of seed.


B.O Variety: botrytis

· Edible part – Curd.

Early variety – Pusa kathi

Mid season variety – Snowball,gaint snow ball, patna main crop.

Late variety – Snow ball -16.

· Cole crops at high temperature regions produce “Sinigrin” compound which gives badodour.

· Cauliflower crop often shows the deficiency of boron and Mo.

· The curd is protected against sunscorch and yellowing by covering with outer leaves which is known as “Blanching”.

· Whiptail is caused due to the deficiency of ‘Mo’ in acidic soils.

· Browning is caused by boron.

· Deficiency of nitrogen cause “buttoning” (development of small curds).

· Planting of early varieties in the late season also cause.

· Blindness is due to low temperature.

· The flowers open and develop into ‘Siliqua”.

Knol – Khol

B.O. Variety : gongylodes.

· Edible part – Knob (Enlarge stem)

· Variety : White Vienna; purple Vienna.

· Sprouting broccoli

B.O. variety: italic.

Edible part – Head.

· Variety : Bronzino – A purple variety of the heading type.

· Brussels sprouts

B.O. Variety : gemmnifera

Edible part – sprouts

· Beans and Peas

F: leguminasea

· Peas are hardy Beans, warm weather except brood bean which is hardy plant.

· French bean

Phaseolus vulgaris

O: South America.

· Three types 1. Dwarf bush type – day neutral plants
2. Semi pole (or) Runner type – Short day plants.
3. Pole type – long day plants.

Jampa variety : littering habit.

· Variety : Pusa parvati – developed through ‘X’ ray irradiation contender; giant stringless.

· Deficiency of Ca and Mg result in lower protein contenent

Cluster bean

Cyamopsis tetragonolobus – warm crop.

· “Pusa mausami” variety is suitable for growing only as rainy season crop.

· Pusa sadabhar – Suitable for both summer and rainy season.

· Pusa naubahar

· Used for extraction of seed gum.

Dolichos bean

O: India.

· Variety : Pusa early prolific bean – Dolichos lab lab variety typicus bean: D.L. lignosis

· DC 1428 cross between garden bean and field bean.

· It is called “Ardhanari” in Tamil.


Vigna unguiculta

Variety : Pusa phalguni

· Pusa barsati – Suitable for rainy season.

· Winged bean

Psophocarpus tetragonalobus (or) fox tail bean.

Broad bean

vicia faba

· Some people are allergic to the pollen of this plant.

· An illness some times fatal and known as “Favism” is caused.


Pisum sativum

· Asavgi.

· NP-29 suitable for dehydration.

· Maturity of pea is tested with help of “Tenderometer”.

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