· Tomato :
Lycopersican esculentum F: Solanaceae O: Mexican regions of tropical America.
· Determinate type terminate in a flower bud and called ‘self topping’ (or) self pruning. Eg: Pusa early dwarf; CO – 1.
· Indeterminate types terminates in a vegetative bud and often requires staking. Eg: Pusa ruby, Best of all Sioux.
· Intermediate – Semi dwarf. Eg: S – 120, Roma.
Small fruited Tomato – L. pimpinellifolium
· Tomato has a yellow pigment – “carotene” and red pigment “Lycopene”.
· Varieties by IARI.
· Pusa ruby – Sioux X Improved meeruti X Red cloud.
· SL – 120 : A nematode resistant variety.
· Pusa red plum – escalentum X Pimpinellifolium
· Roma – for processing.
· F1 hybrids – Pusa ruby X Best of all.
· Boron – to prevent fruit cracking; Zinc for higher ascorbic acid content.
· A period of drought followed by a sudden heavy watering during the fruiting period may cause “cracking of fruits”. Boron deficiency also cause “cracking of fruits”.
· Extraction of seeds.
1. Fermentation method.
2. Acid (or) alkali method – Avoid discolouration – Acid method is quick and more commonly used.
· Intermediate deficiency of soil moisture and deficiency of calcium may cause “blossom end rot”.
· “Sioux” is resistant to growth cracks.
· “Catface” is an advanced stage of “blossom end rot”.
· Root – knot nematode is a common problem in “light red loams”.
· CO-3 (Maruthum) is a mutant variety.
· “White brinjal” is said to be good for “diabetic patients”.
· Based on the length of the style four types of flowers.
1. Long style
2. Medium style.
3. Pseudo style.
4. True (or) short style.
· Long and Medium – Swollen ovary – fertile.
Pseudo and short – rudimentary ovary – do not set into fruits.
· S. auriculatum was found immune to little leaf virus.
Pusa purple long – Ratooning variety.
Pusa purple round – Rest to shoot borer
Pusa purple cluster – Rest to bacterial wilt.
· Bagyamathi – A.P.A.U. variety.
Akra kusumakar; Arka nauaneeth – Hybrid = IHR22-1-2-1 X supreme.
Pusa purple long X Hyderpur – Pusa anmol – F1 hybrid.
· Alkaloid – Capsicin; Red pigment – Capsathin.
· Variety: Sindhuri, N.P. 46A, Pusa jwala – root to mosaic and leaf curl.
Kiran – Rest. To thrips.
· Male sterility was observed in G2 – strain at lam; Guntur.
O: South Africa
· The extract obtained from the plant by seeking in water is used as a clarifier in the manufacture of jaggery.
· Fibre formation in the pod from 5th to 6th day of formation and a sudden increase in fibre content may be seen from 9th day.
· Variety: Selection – 1 – 1; highly rest. To yellow vein mosaic virus (YMV)
Pusa – Sawani: Tolerant to YVMV
Pusa – Makhmeli: Sus. To YVMV
· Abelmoschus manihot – wild species immume to YVMV.
· I.H.R.20-31 retain its tenderness upto 10th day.
Summer vegetable, Monoecious,
· Dioecious cucurbits: Coccinia and pointed gourd.
· Fruit is “pepo”.
· Bitter principle – cucurbitacin (Mono glycoside).
· Gibberellic acid induces maleness.
· Variety : Japanese long green; Straight eight, Chine – IARI.
I.I.H.R.: Gemini excellent for salads
· IARI recommended F1 hybrid – ‘Pusa samyog’.
· The fruit maturity in cucumber is judged by the size but not the age of the fruit.
· Lower temperature causes “blenishes”.
Pumpkin and Squashes
· Variety: Akra suryamukhi – rest. To common pest of fruit fly Arka Chandan.
· IARI : F1 hybrid – Pusa alankar.
· Ash gourd when ripe is used for sweet meat known as “Petha and Pethamash cakes”.
1. Bitter gourd.
2. Bottle gourd are rich in Iron.
· Sponge and ridge gourd contain gelatinous principle “Luffain”.
· Ridge gourd variety “Satputia” is a “hermaphrodite”.
· Pointed gourd and coccinia (Semi perennial vegetables)
· Propagation through “Vine cutting” is the best method.
· Chow – Chow: Perennial vine – Vivipary.
Round melon – citrullus vulgris
Water melon varieties – IARI
1. New Hampshire midget – from U.S.A.
2. Ashaki yamato – Tetra ploid X diploids – seedless.
3. Sugar baby.
· “Tetra 2” is a stable tetraploid variety.
1. Arka jyoti: Hybrid between an American and Indian variety.
· Mukmelon and Snap melon when mature slips out easily form the vine leaving a circular
depression. This is known as “full slip stage”
· Cole crops are developed from wild cliff cabbage known as “Cole worts”.
Brassica oleracea variety Capiteta
· Edible portion – leaves covering a terminal bud is known as “Head”
I. Round head types:
a. Golden acre b. Pride of India.
· The cabbage varieties with large close head and wrinkled leaves are referred to as “Savoy cabbages”.
· Pusa drum head (IARI) is a selection from Japanese variety “EC6774”.
· Sudden heavy irrigation after a long dry spell may cause “bursting of head”.
· Seed production:-
1. Head intact method: only across cut is give to facilitate the emergence of the flower stalk.
2. Core intact method: Outside leaves are removed only the central portion is left.
3. Stump method: Head is removed and only the stump is left.
· The last two methods give higher yields of seed.
B.O Variety: botrytis
· Edible part – Curd.
Early variety – Pusa kathi
Mid season variety – Snowball,gaint snow ball, patna main crop.
Late variety – Snow ball -16.
· Cole crops at high temperature regions produce “Sinigrin” compound which gives badodour.
· Cauliflower crop often shows the deficiency of boron and Mo.
· The curd is protected against sunscorch and yellowing by covering with outer leaves which is known as “Blanching”.
· Whiptail is caused due to the deficiency of ‘Mo’ in acidic soils.
· Browning is caused by boron.
· Deficiency of nitrogen cause “buttoning” (development of small curds).
· Planting of early varieties in the late season also cause.
· Blindness is due to low temperature.
· The flowers open and develop into ‘Siliqua”.
Knol – Khol
B.O. Variety : gongylodes.
· Edible part – Knob (Enlarge stem)
· Variety : White Vienna; purple Vienna.
· Sprouting broccoli
B.O. variety: italic.
Edible part – Head.
· Variety : Bronzino – A purple variety of the heading type.
· Brussels sprouts
B.O. Variety : gemmnifera
Edible part – sprouts
· Beans and Peas
· Peas are hardy Beans, warm weather except brood bean which is hardy plant.
· French bean
O: South America.
· Three types 1. Dwarf bush type – day neutral plants
2. Semi pole (or) Runner type – Short day plants.
3. Pole type – long day plants.
Jampa variety : littering habit.
· Variety : Pusa parvati – developed through ‘X’ ray irradiation contender; giant stringless.
· Deficiency of Ca and Mg result in lower protein contenent
Cyamopsis tetragonolobus – warm crop.
· “Pusa mausami” variety is suitable for growing only as rainy season crop.
· Pusa sadabhar – Suitable for both summer and rainy season.
· Pusa naubahar
· Used for extraction of seed gum.
· Variety : Pusa early prolific bean – Dolichos lab lab variety typicus bean: D.L. lignosis
· DC 1428 cross between garden bean and field bean.
· It is called “Ardhanari” in Tamil.
Variety : Pusa phalguni
· Pusa barsati – Suitable for rainy season.
· Winged bean
Psophocarpus tetragonalobus (or) fox tail bean.
· Some people are allergic to the pollen of this plant.
· An illness some times fatal and known as “Favism” is caused.
· NP-29 suitable for dehydration.
· Maturity of pea is tested with help of “Tenderometer”.