Home / General Agriculture / Basics of Vegetable Crops
Basics of Vegetable Crops

Basics of Vegetable Crops

Share With Your Agri Friends

Basics of Vegetable Crops

· Tomato :

Lycopersican esculentum F: Solanaceae O: Mexican regions of tropical America.

· Determinate type terminate in a flower bud and called ‘self topping’ (or) self pruning. Eg: Pusa early dwarf; CO – 1.

· Indeterminate types terminates in a vegetative bud and often requires staking. Eg: Pusa ruby, Best of all Sioux.

· Intermediate – Semi dwarf. Eg: S – 120, Roma.

Small fruited Tomato – L. pimpinellifolium

· Tomato has a yellow pigment – “carotene” and red pigment “Lycopene”.

· Varieties by IARI.

· Pusa ruby – Sioux X Improved meeruti X Red cloud.

· SL – 120 : A nematode resistant variety.

· Pusa red plum – escalentum X Pimpinellifolium

· Roma – for processing.

· F1 hybrids – Pusa ruby X Best of all.

· Boron – to prevent fruit cracking; Zinc for higher ascorbic acid content.

· A period of drought followed by a sudden heavy watering during the fruiting period may cause “cracking of fruits”. Boron deficiency also cause “cracking of fruits”.

· Extraction of seeds.

1. Fermentation method.

2. Acid (or) alkali method – Avoid discolouration – Acid method is quick and more commonly used.

· Intermediate deficiency of soil moisture and deficiency of calcium may cause “blossom end rot”.

· “Sioux” is resistant to growth cracks.

· “Catface” is an advanced stage of “blossom end rot”.

· Root – knot nematode is a common problem in “light red loams”.

· CO-3 (Maruthum) is a mutant variety.


Solanum melongene

F: Solanaceae

O: India

· “White brinjal” is said to be good for “diabetic patients”.

· Based on the length of the style four types of flowers.
1. Long style
2. Medium style.
3. Pseudo style.
4. True (or) short style.

· Long and Medium – Swollen ovary – fertile.

Pseudo and short – rudimentary ovary – do not set into fruits.

· S. auriculatum was found immune to little leaf virus.

Pusa purple long – Ratooning variety.
Pusa purple round – Rest to shoot borer
Pusa purple cluster – Rest to bacterial wilt.
· Bagyamathi – A.P.A.U. variety.
Akra kusumakar; Arka nauaneeth – Hybrid = IHR22-1-2-1 X supreme.
Pusa purple long X Hyderpur – Pusa anmol – F1 hybrid.


Capsicum annum


C. fruitscens

O: Peru

· Alkaloid – Capsicin; Red pigment – Capsathin.

· Variety: Sindhuri, N.P. 46A, Pusa jwala – root to mosaic and leaf curl.
Kiran – Rest. To thrips.

· Male sterility was observed in G2 – strain at lam; Guntur.

Bhendi (Okra)

Abelmeschus esculentus

F: Malvaceae

O: South Africa

· The extract obtained from the plant by seeking in water is used as a clarifier in the manufacture of jaggery.

· Fibre formation in the pod from 5th to 6th day of formation and a sudden increase in fibre content may be seen from 9th day.

· Variety: Selection – 1 – 1; highly rest. To yellow vein mosaic virus (YMV)
Pusa – Sawani: Tolerant to YVMV
Pusa – Makhmeli: Sus. To YVMV

· Abelmoschus manihot – wild species immume to YVMV.

· I.H.R.20-31 retain its tenderness upto 10th day.


Summer vegetable, Monoecious,

F: Cucurbitaceae.

· Dioecious cucurbits: Coccinia and pointed gourd.

· Fruit is “pepo”.

· Bitter principle – cucurbitacin (Mono glycoside).

· Gibberellic acid induces maleness.


cucumis sativus

O: India

· Variety : Japanese long green; Straight eight, Chine – IARI.

I.I.H.R.: Gemini excellent for salads

· IARI recommended F1 hybrid – ‘Pusa samyog’.

· The fruit maturity in cucumber is judged by the size but not the age of the fruit.

· Lower temperature causes “blenishes”.

Pumpkin and Squashes

cucurbita moschata

· Variety: Akra suryamukhi – rest. To common pest of fruit fly Arka Chandan.

· IARI : F1 hybrid – Pusa alankar.


O: India

· Ash gourd when ripe is used for sweet meat known as “Petha and Pethamash cakes”.

1. Bitter gourd.

2. Bottle gourd are rich in Iron.

· Sponge and ridge gourd contain gelatinous principle “Luffain”.

· Ridge gourd variety “Satputia” is a “hermaphrodite”.

· Pointed gourd and coccinia (Semi perennial vegetables)


coccinia indica

· Propagation through “Vine cutting” is the best method.

· Chow – Chow: Perennial vine – Vivipary.


Round melon – citrullus vulgris

O: India

Water melon varieties – IARI

1. New Hampshire midget – from U.S.A.

2. Ashaki yamato – Tetra ploid X diploids – seedless.

3. Sugar baby.

· “Tetra 2” is a stable tetraploid variety.

1. Arka jyoti: Hybrid between an American and Indian variety.
· Mukmelon and Snap melon when mature slips out easily form the vine leaving a circular
depression. This is known as “full slip stage”

Cole crops:

F: cruciferae.

· Cole crops are developed from wild cliff cabbage known as “Cole worts”.

· Cabbage:

Brassica oleracea variety Capiteta

· Edible portion – leaves covering a terminal bud is known as “Head”

· Variety:
I. Round head types:
a. Golden acre b. Pride of India.

· The cabbage varieties with large close head and wrinkled leaves are referred to as “Savoy cabbages”.

· Pusa drum head (IARI) is a selection from Japanese variety “EC6774”.

· Sudden heavy irrigation after a long dry spell may cause “bursting of head”.

· Seed production:-
1. Head intact method: only across cut is give to facilitate the emergence of the flower stalk.

2. Core intact method: Outside leaves are removed only the central portion is left.

3. Stump method: Head is removed and only the stump is left.

· The last two methods give higher yields of seed.


B.O Variety: botrytis

· Edible part – Curd.

Early variety – Pusa kathi

Mid season variety – Snowball,gaint snow ball, patna main crop.

Late variety – Snow ball -16.

· Cole crops at high temperature regions produce “Sinigrin” compound which gives badodour.

· Cauliflower crop often shows the deficiency of boron and Mo.

· The curd is protected against sunscorch and yellowing by covering with outer leaves which is known as “Blanching”.

· Whiptail is caused due to the deficiency of ‘Mo’ in acidic soils.

· Browning is caused by boron.

· Deficiency of nitrogen cause “buttoning” (development of small curds).

· Planting of early varieties in the late season also cause.

· Blindness is due to low temperature.

· The flowers open and develop into ‘Siliqua”.

Knol – Khol

B.O. Variety : gongylodes.

· Edible part – Knob (Enlarge stem)

· Variety : White Vienna; purple Vienna.

· Sprouting broccoli

B.O. variety: italic.

Edible part – Head.

· Variety : Bronzino – A purple variety of the heading type.

· Brussels sprouts

B.O. Variety : gemmnifera

Edible part – sprouts

· Beans and Peas

F: leguminasea

· Peas are hardy Beans, warm weather except brood bean which is hardy plant.

· French bean

Phaseolus vulgaris

O: South America.

· Three types 1. Dwarf bush type – day neutral plants
2. Semi pole (or) Runner type – Short day plants.
3. Pole type – long day plants.

Jampa variety : littering habit.

· Variety : Pusa parvati – developed through ‘X’ ray irradiation contender; giant stringless.

· Deficiency of Ca and Mg result in lower protein contenent

Cluster bean

Cyamopsis tetragonolobus – warm crop.

· “Pusa mausami” variety is suitable for growing only as rainy season crop.

· Pusa sadabhar – Suitable for both summer and rainy season.

· Pusa naubahar

· Used for extraction of seed gum.

Dolichos bean

O: India.

· Variety : Pusa early prolific bean – Dolichos lab lab variety typicus bean: D.L. lignosis

· DC 1428 cross between garden bean and field bean.

· It is called “Ardhanari” in Tamil.


Vigna unguiculta

Variety : Pusa phalguni

· Pusa barsati – Suitable for rainy season.

· Winged bean

Psophocarpus tetragonalobus (or) fox tail bean.

Broad bean

vicia faba

· Some people are allergic to the pollen of this plant.

· An illness some times fatal and known as “Favism” is caused.


Pisum sativum

· Asavgi.

· NP-29 suitable for dehydration.

· Maturity of pea is tested with help of “Tenderometer”.

Share With Your Agri Friends

About agrilearner.com

Check Also

Coppice System

Coppice System of Silviculture

Share With Your Agri Friends Coppice System of Silviculture Defined as that Silviculture System in …

Leave a Reply

error: Content is protected !! Dont copy
%d bloggers like this: