Bio-gas related topic for Competitive Exam


It is mostly made up of hydrocarbons, which are flammable and may generate heat and energy when burned. Bio-gas is created by a biochemical process in which particular bacteria transform biological wastes into usable bio-gas. Bio-gas is the name given to a beneficial gas that comes from a biological process. Biogas is mostly composed of methane gas.

▪The decomposition of organic matter in the absence of oxygen produces biogas, which is a combination of various gases.

▪Agricultural waste, manure, municipal trash, plant material, sewage, green waste, and food waste may all be used to make biogas. Biogas is a renewable source of energy.

▪Anaerobic digestion with methanogen or anaerobic microbes, which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials are two methods for producing biogas.

▪An anaerobic digester, also known as a bio digester or a bioreactor, is a closed system.

▪Biogas predominantly consists of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), with minor quantities of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), moisture, and siloxanes.

▪Methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) are all gases that may be burned or oxidised with oxygen. Biogas may be utilised as a fuel because of this energy release; it can be used for any heating purpose, including cooking.

▪It may also be utilised to transform the energy in gas into electricity and heat in a gas engine.

▪Biogas is made up of a combination of methane and carbon dioxide.

▪S.V. Desai, a pioneer of anaerobic digestion in India, is credited with conducting the first biogas tests in 1939.

▪In 1951, the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) developed the first Indian biogas plant, the Gramalaxi plant, also known as the KVIC digester.

Components of biogas plants

  • Mixing tank – In the mixing tank, the feed material (dung) is collected. A sufficient amount of water is added, and the material is thoroughly stirred until it forms a homogenous slurry.
  • Inlet pipeThrough the entrance pipe/tank, the substrate is fed into the digester.
  • Digester – Inside the digester, the slurry is digested, and biogas is created by bacterial activity.
  • Gas holder or gas storage dome – The biogas is collected in a gas container, which keeps the gas safe until it is used.
  • Outlet pipe – The digested slurry is released into the output tank through either the outlet pipe or the digester’s aperture.
  • Gas pipeline – The gas pipeline transports the gas from the source to the place of use, such as a stove or light.

Biogas enrichment and bottling technology – a pilot demonstration unit

Shri Krishna Gaushala is located in Ghaziabad’s Karera Village. It is a Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (Govt of India) pilot demonstration unit using IIT Delhi technology.

Around 1000 cows live in the Gaushala herd. Two sheds for cows and one for calves, a separate shed for bulls, a vermin-composting shed and compost pit, a urine collecting centre, three biogas plants (85+85+60 cum/day capacity), a slurry collection tank, and a biogas purification and bottling unit are among the facilities.

  • Cow dung in the amount of 5 tonnes is used to fuel biogas plants (Capacity).
  • A Biogas Purification (water scrubbing system – capacity – 20 cum/hr) & Bottling Unit purifies and bottles biogas, which is then utilised as a car fuel -3)
  • The Bio-Gas generated is also utilised to generate electricity using a generator.
  • The slurry from the Biogas facility (which is richer in nutrients than fresh cow dung) is utilised as manure for plantations in Gaushala and the surrounding area, and it is also vermin-composted and sold.

Kitchen Waste Based Biogas Plant

A biogas plant based on kitchen waste has been erected at the Nursery site for the environmentally responsible disposal of garbage generated in the kitchens of several BARC canteens. The plant should be able to handle all of the garbage created by these canteens.

The components of a biogas plant are as follows:

  • Crushing solid trash using a mixer/pulper (5 HP motor).
  • Tanks for pre-mixing
  • Tank for predigesting
  • Solar-powered water heater
  • Tank for primary digestion (35 m3)
  • Pits for manure
  • The biogas generated at the facility is used to power gas lights.

Process: This factory can treat kitchen waste in the form of vegetable refuge, stale cooked and uncooked food, extracted tea powder, discarded milk, and milk products.

When collecting kitchen garbage, observe the following precautions:

  • Coconut shells, coir, egg shells, onion peels, and bones should be kept in a separate container. The biogas plant will not process these materials.
  • To collect moist trash, separate containers of modest sizes (5 litre capacity) are used (spoilt or stale cooked food, waste milk products etc.). Vegetable waste, such as peels from various vegetables, rotting potatoes and tomatoes, coriander leaves, and so on, can be collected in 5-kilo rubbish bags. It should be mentioned that such separation is critical for the biogas plant’s effective operation.

BARC has made two significant changes to the traditional design of the biogas plant:

  • The trash is processed using a 5 HP mixer before being placed in the predigestor tank. The garbage is turned into a slurry by combining it with water (1:1).
  • The use of thermophilic microorganisms to accelerate waste decomposition. The thermophiles are able to thrive in extreme temperatures. Many rotting and harmful organisms cannot survive in such harsh settings because their habitat supports greater temperatures. As a result, it would be wonderful if we could employ these organisms to decompose kitchen trash and eliminate more harmful materials before putting it through a typical biogas plant to generate methane.

The predigestor tank is kept at a high temperature. By mixing the waste with hot water and keeping the temperature in the predigestor tank between 55 and 60 degrees Celsius, thermophile development is ensured. A solar water heater provides hot water. Even one hour of sunshine every day is enough to satisfy the demands for hot water.

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