Black Quarter – Animal Disease
Synonyms: Black – leg, Farrya
It is an acute infectious and highly fatal, bacterial disease of cattle. Buffaloes, sheep and goats are also affected. Young cattle between 6-24 months of age, in good body condition are mostly affected. It is soil-borne infection which generally occurs during rainy season. In India, the disease is sporadic (1-2 animal) in nature.
Etiology: It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei
The disease spreads through
a) Ingestion of contaminated feed and
b) Contamination of wounds.
1. Fever (106-10S°F)
2. Loss of appetite
3. Depression, dullness
4. Suspended rumination
5. Rapid pulse and heart rates
6. Difficult breathing (dyspnoea)
7. Lameness in affected leg.
8 Crepitation swelling over hip, back & shoulder.
9. Swelling is hot & painful in early stages whereas cold and painless inter.
10. Recumbency (prostration) followed by death within 12-48 hrs.
- History of age, body condition & season.
- Symptoms – high fever, Crepitation swelling and lameness.
- P.M. findings – dark colored muscles with gaseous infiltration.
- Examination of smears made from affected (issues or fluid from 4he swelling.
- Isolation of the organism.
- Penicillin @ 10,000 units /Kg body weight 1M & locally daily for 5-6 days.
- Oxytetracycline in high doses i.e. 5-10 mg/Kg body weight 1M or IV
- Indcse the swelling and drain off
- B.Q. antiserum in large does, if available.
5 Injection. Avil / Cadistin @ 5-10 ml IM
a) General measures:
Isolation of infected and in contact animals.
Disposal of carcass either by deep burial or burning.
Proper disinfection of surgical instruments prior to operation.
Don’t allow grazing in affected area.
Alum precipitated B.Q. Vaccine 5 ml subcut each year before rainy season.
Hemorrhagic Septicaemia – Animal Disease
Synonyms: Pasturellosis, shipping fever, ghatsurp
It is an actual infectious disease of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat. It distances transportation. In India, the disease is enzootic in nature. Etiology environmental conditions, malnutrition and long distance transportation. In India, the disease is enzootic in nature.
Etiology: It is caused by Pasteurella multocida
Ingestion of contaminated feed and water and Inhalation.
High fever (106 – 107°F)
Loss of appetite
Dullness and depression
Rapid pulse & heart rate
Profuse salivation and laciration.
Profuse nasal discharge
Swelling of throat region (submandibular oedema)
Death within 10-72 hours.
History of season, climate & stress factor.
Symptoms -high fever, swelling of throat region.
Postmortem findings – hemorrhages throughout body & submandibular edema.
Examination of blood smears and smears from oedematus fluid.
Isolation of the organism from blood & edematous fluid.
Treatment is effective if given in early stage of disease.
a) Specific treatment:
1. Injection. Sulphadimidine @ 150 mg/Kg body weight IV daily for 3 days
2. Injection Oxytetracycline @ 5-10 mg/Kg body weight IV or IM daily for 3 days.
b) Supportive treatment:
- Use of antipyretics lo reduces body temperature.
- Use of antihistaminic e.g. Injection Avil/Cadistin5-10 ml IM.
a) General measures:
Isolation and treatment of the affected animals.
Close animal markets, cattle shows. Etc.
Burning or burial of dead animals.
Proper disposal of contaminated feed and water.
Disinfection of cattle shed.
Avoid long distance transportation and exposure to extreme weather.
Alum precipitated M.S. vaccine@ 5 ml subcut every year before monsoon.
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