(Branches of Horticulture)The word Horticulture is derived from the Latin word Hortus meaning enclosure (garden) and culture meaning cultivation. Thus, Horticulture means culture or cultivation of garden crops.
Enclosed places were used to grow fruit, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants. Therefore, in the original sense, “Horticulture refers to cultivation of garden plants within protected enclosures” Horticulture may be broadly defined as the science and art of growing fruits, vegetables, flowers and crops like spices condiments and other plantation crops.
Horticulture according to modern science is the cultivation, processing and utilization of a number of crops such as fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, plantation crops, spices, medicinal, aromatic plants and mushrooms.
Branches of Horticulture:
Horticulture is a wide field which includes a great variety and diversity of crops. The science of horticulture can be divided into several branches depending upon the crops it deals with.
The branches of horticulture can be broadly classified as under:
Main Branches:(Branches of Horticulture)
1) Pomology: Pomology is a branch of horticulture which deals with the cultivation of fruit crops.
2) Olericulture: Olericulture is a branch of horticulture which deals with the cultivation of vegetable crops.
3) Floriculture: Floriculture is a branch of horticulture which deals with the cultivation of flower crops.
4) Plantation crops, Spices, Condiments. (Branches of Horticulture)
a) Plantation crops: Tropical crops grown area on a large scale by a uniform system of cultivation under central management and centered around a factory are called plantation crops. Eg tea, coffee, coconut, palms etc.
b) Spice crops: Spices are dried vegetable substances which are used for seasoning food and imparting distinctive flavor and fragrance that gives zest or piquancy for enjoyment. eg. Black paper, cinnamon, nutmeg etc.
c) Condiments: Condiments are plant-products which add taste to the foodstuffs or food preparations. eg. Coriander, cumin etc.
5) Fruit and vegetables Preservation: This branch deals with the principles and practices of preservation of fruits and vegetables in different forms for their use out of season or in areas where these crops are not grown.eg. jam, jelly, ketchup, pickles, etc.
Another sub branches of horticulture can be roughly classified as under:(Branches of Horticulture)
1) Medicinal and Aromatic plants.
a) Medicinal plants: Medicinal plants are rich source of alkaloids and steroids having prophylactic or curative properties for treatments in several diseases and are used in pharmaceutical industries for preparing medicines for human beings and animals (veterinary medicines) eg. Vinca, Isabgol etc.
b) Aromatic plants: Aromatic plants are the plants which provide essential oils and are in great demand in cosmetic and perfumery industries. eg. Lemon grass, Patchouli etc.
(Branches of Horticulture)
2) Ornamental gardening: It is the branch of horticulture which deals with the study of growing of ornamental foliage and flowering trees, shrubs, climbers, seasonal flowers, cacti, orchids, indoor and outdoor garden plants.
3) Landscape gardening: It deals with planting of different types of ornamentals which create a picturesque effect by imitating nature in garden.
4) Nursery management: There is a scientific study for the production of plants in nurseries for their subsequent cultivation in fields.
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