The cabbage consists of thick leaves overlapping tightly on growing main bud called ‘head’. Cabbage is very convenient to grow both on large and small-scale (kitchen garden) cultivation. Cabbage is grown throughout the country but it is more popular in Southern States where it is available all the year round. In northern India also, the cabbage availability period has been considerably extended with the development of tropical varieties/hybrids.
Agri-Notes : General Agriculture for ICAR’s JRF, ARS/NET, SRF, IARI Ph. D/President P. G., NABARD, IBPS-SO Exams.
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata)
Cabbage can be grown under a wide range of climate but cool moist climate is most suitable. It loses its flavour in dry warm weather. The optimum soil temperature for seed germination is 12 to 160C.
It can be grown in a wide range of sandy to well drained heavy soils but it prefers sandy loam soils. Early cultivars grow well in light soils while late maturing ones perform better on heavy well drained soils. The optimum soil pH for cabbage is between 6.0 to 6.5. Most cabbage cultivars are moderately tolerant to salt.
A large number of cabbage varieties differing in maturity, head shape and size, colour of leaves and shape of the leaves are grown throughout the world. All these types have been classified into different groups.
Early Maturing varieties : The varieties under this group are usually ready within 60-70 days after transplanting the seedlings. The varieties are: Golden Acre, Pride of India, Copenhagen Market, Early Drumhead, Pusa Mukta.
Midseason varieties : These varieties will be ready for harvesting in 80-90 days after planting. These varieties are: All Head early, Wisconsin, All Green, September.
Late varieties : – These varieties require long winter season for good yield and quality. The heads are ready in 90-120 days after planting. The varieties under this group are : Pusa Drumhead, Danish Ballhead, Late Flat Dutch.
Hybrids: Besides above mentioned varieties, some F, hybrids are also being marketed by some of the seed companies. These are: Hari Rani, Shri Ganesh Gol, Kamdhenu (Mahyco), Sujata, Bajrang, Swati (Rallis India Ltd), Ganga, Yamuna, Kaveri (Indo-American Hybrid Seed Co.), Green Express and Green Boy (National Seed Corporation).
650 g/ha of seeds is required.
250 g of hybrid cabbage seed is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha. Treat the seeds in hot water @ 50C for 30 minutes. 25g of Azospirillum is required for the seed treatment of 250g cabbage seeds.
Hills : 40 x 40 cm
Plains : 45 x 30 cm
Hybrid : 60x 45x45cm in paired row system
30 – 40 days old seedlings are selected for planting. Hardening of seedlings is done by withholding irrigation 4 – 6 days prior to planting.
Application of fertilizers
Apply 30 t/ha FYM, 90 kg N, 90 kg P and 90 kg K as basal and 45:45:45 kg NPK/ha on 30 to 45 days after planting.
Apply 20 t/ha of FYM, 50 kg N, 125 kg P and 25 kg K/ha along with 2 kg Azospirillum as basal and 50 kg N after one month of planting and earth up.
First irrigation is given soon after transplanting of seedlings and thereafter irrigations may be applied at 10-15 days intervals. But optimum soil moisture should be maintained by frequent irrigation during critical period of head formation and development. Uneven moisture supply during this period may result into splitting or bursting of head adversely affecting the quality of produce.
Seed treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens at 10 g/ kg of seeds, followed by seedling dip @ 5g/ l and soil application @ 2.5 kg/ha along with 50 kg FYM before planting
Dip the seedlings in Carbendazim solution 2 g/l for 20 minutes. Drench the soil around the seedlings in the main field with Carbendazim @ 1 g/l of water. Follow crop rotation. Crucifers should be avoided for three years.
Leaf spot can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb at 2 g/lit or Carbendazim 1 g/lit.
Leaf blight can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb @ 2.5 g/ litre.
Ring spot can be controlled by spraying Mancozeb 2 g/lit or Carbendzim 1 g/lit or Copper oxychloride 2.5 g/lit.
Downy mildew can be controlled by combined spraying of (Metalaxyl + Mancozeb) 2 g/lit 3 sprays at 10 days interval.
Black rot can be controlled by dipping the seeds in 100 ppm Streptocycline for 30 minutes. Two sprays with 2 g/lit Copper oxychloride + Streptomycin 100 ppm after planting and head formation.
Harvesting and yield
Cabbage heads should be harvested when they attain the full size depending on the variety used. They have a tendency to burst or loosen the leaves beyond the marketable stage. In such cases, the quality of heads deteriorated fast if harvesting is delayed. However, cultivars differ in their susceptibility to cracking.
The yield of cabbage varieties greatly depends on choice of cultivar, climatic conditions, management practices, etc. The early maturing and tropical cultivars produce lower yields (200 – 250q/ha) due to shorter growing season while midseason and late varieties give much higher yields (350-450q/ha) because of favourable cooler climate for long period.