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Plant Breeding

Transcription and Translation

Transcription: Transcription is the process by which DNA is copied (transcribed) to mRNA, which carries the information needed for protein synthesis. Transcription takes place in two broad steps. First, pre-messenger RNA is formed, with the involvement of RNA polymerase enzymes. The process relies on Watson-Crick base pairing, and the resultant single …

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Genetic Linkage

Genetic linkage describes the way in which two genes that are located close to each other on a chromosome are often inherited together. In 1905, William Bateson, Edith Rebecca Saunders, and Reginald C. Punnett noted that the traits for flower color and pollen shape in sweet pea plants appeared to …

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Crossing over

Crossing over

Crossing over Crossing over is the process of exchange of genetic material or segments between non-sister chromatids of two homologous chromosomes. Crossing over occurs due to the interchange of sections of homologous chromosomes. Meaning of Crossing Over: If linkage is complete, there should be all parental combinations only and no …

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Morphology of chromosome

Morphology of chromosome: The morphology of chromosome can be best studies at the metaphase or anaphase of mitosis when they are present as definite organelles, being most condensed or coild. Number: The number of chromosomes in a given species is usually constant containing diploid number (2n) of chromosomes in their …

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Cytoplasmic Inheritence.

Cytoplasmic Inheritence.

Definitions of Cytoplasmic Inheritance: Extra-chromosomal inheritance, extra-nuclear inheritance, somal inheritance and maternal inheritance are all synonyms. All these terms can be defined as the inheritance of characteristics of only one of the two parents, usually the female parent to the progeny. The reciprocal crosses show consistent differences as well as there …

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Cell Organelles and their function

Ultra structure of plant cell   Cell Organella A small organ-like structure present inside the cell is called a cell organelle. It has a particular structural makeup and performs a specific function. Depending upon the presence or absence of membrane, cell organelles can be classified into three categories, namely: Without …

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