Characteristic features of Indian rainfall

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  •  Annual Average rainfall is 1190 mm
  • There is wide variation in the quantity of rainfall received from place to place.
    Highly erratic, undependable, variation in seasonal rainfall either in excess or
    deficit are the nature of Indian rainfall. For example a place in Rajasthan receives
    practically nil rainfall at the same time Chirapunji about 3000 mm rainfall.

  • Rainfall is not uniformly distributed throughout the year. It is seasonal, major
    quantity is in the South West Monsoon, (SWM alone contributing 70% of total
    rainfall) i.e. in the month of June to September followed by North East Monsoon
    (NEM) from October to December. It summer and winter the amount of rainfall
    is very little.
  • With in the season also the distribution is not uniform. A sudden heavy downpour
    followed by dry spell for a long period is common occurrence.
  • Rainfall distribution over a large number of days is more effective than heavy
    down pour in a short period, but it is in negative trend in India

  • Late starting of seasonal monsoon
  • Early withdrawal of monsoon and
  •  Liability to failure are the freakish behaviour of Indian rainfall. Timely and
    uniform distribution of rainfall is important for better crop planning and to sustain
    crop production.


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