Chick-pea( Cicer arietinum)
• Gram is rich source of calcium, iron and niacin. Used as blood purifier and germinated seeds are recommended to cure scurvy disease.
• India is the largest producer of gram in the world sharing 65% area & 70% of total global production.(Chick pea One Liner)
• Major pulse crop in India and share largest acreage and production among the pulse crop in the country, followed by pigeon pea.
•Origin of place: Afghanistan (Persia)
Area and distribution(World):
• Area: India > Pakistan > Turkey
• Production: India > Turkey > Pakistan
• Area: MP > Raj > U
• Production: MP > Raj > UP
•Desi or brown gram Yellow to dark brown seed small sized
• Cosmopolitan in nature. (Chick pea One Liner)
• Test weight: 140-200g
Kabuli/white gram (C. kabulim),
•2n = 16
• Bold attractive white seed
•Test weight: 340-375 g
• Family: Leguminaceae, sub family: Papilionaceae
• The sour taste of leaves and pods is due to the presence oi Mallic acid 90-96% and Oxalic acid 4-10%, about 4-10 kg oi these acid can be obtained from one ha crop.
• Tap root system, cloddy and rough seed bed is required to provide adequate aeration for proper germination of seeds
• C3, long day plant.
• Gram is highly susceptible to frost at flowering stage.
•Varieties:(Chick pea One Liner)
•Avrodhi: Wilt resistant
•Pusa-256/BG 256: Most common and best for Rainfed conditior
•C-235: Widely adopted for dry land, tolerant Ascochyta blight.
•Gaurav: Resistant to Ascochyta blight.
•RS -11: Mutant variety
•ICCC-2: Short duration variety Aparna (2006)
• Rough seed bed is required for gram to provide good aeration.
• Sowing: fortnight of October is optimum time.
• Spacing: Row to Row 30 x 10 at the depth of 6-8cm.(Chick pea One Liner)
• Delayed planting increases the incidence of (pod borer) Helicoverpa armigera.
• Early and shallow sown crop is more liable to be damaged by wilt.
• Pre -flowering and pod development are the most critical stages.
Practices in gram: Nipping and topping:
• Pruning of top branches of the plants to encourage reproductive growth
• Practice at 50-60 days after sowing
• It can be done by a flock of sheep.
• Chemical for nipping: TIBA @ 75 PPM i.e. Tri-iodobenzoic Acid.
• Yield of gram 20-25 q/ha.
• Root system of gram is: Tap root system(Chick pea One Liner)
• Sour test of gram leaf is due to: Maleic & oxalic acid
• Best variety for dry land is: C-235
• Sowing time of gram is: 15 October- 20 Oct.
• Gram fruit is known as: Pod
• Protein content of gram: 21 %
• Deep sowing of gram is protect from: Wilt disease
• Critical stage for irrigation: Pre flowering, pod development stage.
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Pigeon pea: (Cajanns cajun)
• Known as red gram
• drough tolerant among pulses.
•cajun var. bicolor: Perennial, tall, much branched N/ Late maturity, 4-5 grains/pod Commonly grown in North India.
• C. cajan var. flavus:Annual, Short plant , Early maturity, 2-3 grains/pod. Mainly grown in South India as a seed crop.(Chick pea One Liner)
Area and distribution:
• Area: India > Malari > Uganda
• Production: Same trend in area and production
• Area: Maharashtra > UP > Karnataka
• Production: UP > MH > Gujarat
• Productivity: Bihar > UP
• In India 90% area and 85% production on Global basis.
•Deep rooted, self pollinated. Hypogeal germination. C3, short day plant. Hardy crop.
a. Short duration: UPAS-120: It takes about 120-125 days.(Chick pea One Liner)
drought tolerant crop among major
• Prabhat: Extra -early, 110-120 days
• ICPH-8: lsthybrid of arhar in world developed at ICRISAT, Hyderabad, 1991.
• PPH-4, ICPL-15
b. Medium duration: 150-180 days
• BDN1, 2,
• C-11 • Mulcta (wilt resistant).
c. Long duration: 180-300 days: PUSA-9.
• Spacing: 60 x 15 cm.
• Plant population for kharif is: 55,000 plants/ha(Chick pea One Liner)
• Plant population for winter crop: 3.33 lakh plants/ha
• Sowing time:1st fortnight of June
• Harvesting Index is: 19% lowest in among pulses
• Botanical name of Arhar:Cajanus Capri.
• Origin of arhar: South Africa.
• Sowing of arhar: 15 June
• Highest production of arhar in: UP
• Protein content of arhar is: 25%.
• Highest productivity of arhar: Bihar (1115 kg/ha).(Chick pea One Liner)
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