Chickpea Cultivation Point Wise Notes For Competitive exam

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Chickpea Cultivation

Cultivation of Bengal gram or Chickpea (Cicer arietinum)

Importance –

  • In India it is recognized as king of pulse
  • Main products-dal, besan (flour), parched grain, foliage vegetable
  • Rich source of Ca, Fe and niacin
  • Used as blood purifier(Chickpea Cultivation)
  • Germinated seeds are recommended to cure scurvy disease
  • Protein content – 21%

Origin

  • First domesticated in Middle East
  •  Origin place- Afghanistan (Persia)/South West Asia

Species grown in India-

C. arietinum

  • Desi or brown gram
  • 2n-14 or 16
  • Most widely cultivated in India.
  • Branching type = small size brown seed cosmopolitan
  • Test weight- 140-200 g(Chickpea Cultivation)

C. kabulium

  • Kabuli/white gram
  • 2n-16
  • Bold attractive white seeds taller plants
  • Test weight-340-375g
  •  low productivity

Botany-

  • Family-Fabaceae/leguminaceae
  • Leaf– sour taste of leaves is due to presence of Malic acid
  • Lour taste of pods is due to Oxalic acid
  • 4-10 kg of Malic and Oxalic acid can be obtained from one ha crop
  • Fruit type – pod(Chickpea Cultivation)
  • Root-Tap root system

Important varieties-

  • Avarodhi -Wilt resistant
  • Gaurav – Ascochyta blight resistant
  • Pusa -256 – best for rainfed
  • C-235 – best for dryland
  • Aparna – green grain gram
  • C-104 – Kabuli gram

Soil

  • All type except saline and sodic
  • Alluvial soil of IGP is very good(Chickpea Cultivation)

Climate –

  • Cool climate, rabi (winter) season,
  • Optimum temperature-15-25 °C
  •  C3 plant
  • long day plant
  • Highly susceptible to frost at flowering stage

Cropping system-

  • Rotated with maize, pearl millet
  • Intercropped with linseed, wheat(Chickpea Cultivation)

Field preparation –

  • Cloddy and rough seed bed is required (adequate aeration needed)
  • Highly sensitive to soil aeration
  •  Germination -Hypogeal
  • Mainly cultivated rainfed
  • Rainfed crop sowing time-2 nd fortnight of October in North India
  • Irrigated crop sowing time – last week of October
  • Spacing – 30-45 x 10 cm
  • Seed depth – 7-10 cm
  • Seed rate – 60-100 kg
  • Planting on raised beds of 2 rows is effective
  • Hand weeding 30-40 DAS or Pendamethalin
  • Irrigation – most critical stages – Pre-flowering and pod development
  • Fertilizer rate – 20:60:10 NPK Kg/ha(Chickpea Cultivation)
  • Bio-fertilizer – Rhizobium and PSB culture seed treatment is effective
  • Crop duration – 150-160 days (North India), 120-125 dasy (Central and South India)
  • Average yield – 20-25 q/ha (irrigated crop)

Nipping (Topping)-

  • Plucking of apical buds on 30 DAS
  • To encourage lateral branching
  • Practiced in gram, cotton.(Chickpea Cultivation)

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