A. According to suitability of toposequence
(i) Crops grown on upland – Levelled elevated land with drain all around or unbunded levelled land with drains or drops.
Crops that cannot tolerant water stagnation come under this group. e.g., red gram, groundnut, maize, sorghum, cotton, sesamum, napier etc.
Crops that require sufficient soil moisture but cannot tolerate water stagnation. e.g., Potato, sugarcane, upland rice, ragi, wheat, black gram, Bengal gram.
(ii) Crops grown on lowland – These lands are provided with dykes or bunds all around to stagnate water.
Crops that require abundant supply of water and can withstand prolonged water logged conditions. e.g., rice, daincha, Para grass and jute.
B. According to source of water
(i) Irrigated crops – The crop cultivation primarily depends upon the irrigation water for a part/ entire growth period of the crop. All crops irrespective seasons are possible to be raised in this category.
(ii) Rainfed crops – The crop cultivation entirely depends upon the rainfall received. Crop varieties depend upon the season and the rainfall pattern.
C. According to moisture availability the soil
(i) Wet lands – The soil moisture is allowed to occupy both macro and microspores. Anaerobic field condition prevails here. Crops suitable are those crops, which tolerate water stagnation. e.g., green manures like sesbania group, grasses etc.
(ii) Dry lands – The soil moisture is allowed only on to microspores. Macro pores are filled with air. Magnitude of soil moisture varies according to the crop. Crops like maize, highly sensitive to excess moisture and drought, crops tolerant to drought and temporary stagnation, sorghum are cultivated in this type of field condition.
D. According to the suitability of the textural groups of soils
(i) Crops suitable to sandy to sandy loam (light) soils – Sorghum, bajra, green gram, sunflower, potato, onion, carrot etc.
(ii) Crops suitable to silty loam (medium) soils – Jute, sugarcane, maize, cotton, mustard, tobacco, bengal gram, red gram, cowpea, etc.
(iii) Crop suitable to clay loam (heavy) soils – Rice, wheat, barley, linseed, lentil, para grass, guinea grass, marvel grass etc.
E. According to tolerance to problem soils
(i) Tolerant to acidic soils – Wet rice, potato, mustard.
(ii) Tolerant to saline soils – Chillies, cucurbits, wheat, sorghum, bajra, cluster beans, barley etc.
(iii) Tolerant to alkali/sodic soils – Barley, cotton, bengal gram, berseem, sunflower, maize, etc.
(iv) Tolerant to waterlogged soils – Wet rice, daincha, para grass, napier grass, guinea grass.
(v) Crops tolerant to soil erosion – Marvel grass, groundnut, black gram, rice bean, moth bean, and horse gram.
F. According to tillage requirement
(i) Arable crops – Require preparatory tillage. e.g., Potato, tobacco, rice, maize.
(ii) Non-arable crops – May not require preparatory cultivation/tillage. e.g., para grass.
G. According to the depth of root system
(i) Shallow rooted crops – Rice, potato, and onion.
(ii) Moderately deep rooted – Wheat, groundnut, castor, and tobacco.
(iii) Deep rooted – Maize, cotton, and sorghum.
(iv) Very deep rooted – Sugarcane, safflower, lucerne, and red gram.
H. According to the tolerance to hazardous weather condition
(i) Frost tolerant – Sugar beet, beet root.
(ii) Cold tolerant – Potato, cabbage, and mustard.
(iii) Drought tolerant – Bajra, jowar, barley, safflower, castor.
I. According to method of sowing/planting
(i) Direct seeded crop – Where the seeds are sown directly either dry or sprouted. upland rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, groundnut etc.
(ii) Planted crops – Where plant parts are planted directly. e.g., sugarcane, potato, sweet potato, napier, guinea grass.
(iii) Transplanted crops – Where seedlings are raised in the nursery, pulled out and planted in the field: rice, ragi, bajra, tobacco, bellary onion, brinjal.
J. According to inter tillage requirement specially earthing up
(i) Intertilled crops – Potato, sweet potato, groundnut, maize, sugarcane, and turmeric.
(ii) Non-intertilled crops – Fodder sorghum, deenanath grass, para grass etc.
K. According to length of field duration of crops
(i) Very short duration crops (upto 75 days) : pulses
(ii) Short duration crops (75–100 days) : sunflower, cauliflower, upland rice
(iii) Medium duration crops (100–125 days ) : wheat, jowar, bajra, groundnut, sesame, jute
(iv) Long duration crops (125–150 days) : mustard, tobacco, cotton
(v) Very long duration crops: above 150 days : sugarcane, red gram, castor.
L. According to the method of harvesting
(i) Reaping : rice, wheat,
(ii) Uprooting by pulling : bengal gram, black gram, lentil, rapeseed
(iii) Uprooting by digging : potato, sweet potato, groundnut, carrot etc.
(iv) Picking : cotton, vegetables, brinjal, bhendi, chillies
(v) Priming : tobacco
(vi) Cutting : berseem, napier, amaranthus
(vii) Grazing : para grass, kolukattai grass, and stylo.
M. According to post harvest requirement
(i) Curing : tobacco, mustard
(ii) Stripping : jute, sunnhemp
(iii) Shelling : groundnut
(iv) Ginning : cotton
(v) Seasoning : turmeric, chillies
(vi) Grading and sorting : potato, rice, wheat, fibre crops etc.
N. Based on crops growing soil condition
(i) Psammophytes (Sandy soil) : castor
(ii) Lithophytes (Rock surface) : ferns
(iii) Chasmophytes (Rock crack) : potato
(iv) Acedophytes (Acid soil) : potato
(v) Basophytes (Alkali soil) : rice
(vi) Calciphytes (Basic soil) : asparagus
(vii) Halophytes (Saline soil) : sugar beet, alfalfa
O. Based on climatic condition
(i) Tropical crop : coconut, sugarcane
(ii) Sub-tropical crop : rice, cotton
(iii) Temperate crop : wheat, barley
(iv) Polar crop : all pines, pasture grasses.
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