CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEMS
Broadly,poultry housing systems are classified into three systems:
=>Free range or extensive system
=>Slatted floor system
=>Slat cum litter system
FREE RANGE SYSTEM (1’st CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEMS)
=>This system is adopted only when adequate land is available to ensure desired stocking density by avoiding overcrowding.
=>We can rear about 250 adult birds per hectare.
=>A range provides shelter,greens,feed, water and shade.
=>For aging is the major source of feeding for birds. Shelter is usually provided by temporary roofing supported by ordinary poles.
=>The fields are generally used on rotational basis after harvesting of crops by moving of birds from one field to an other depending on cropping programme.
=>All categories of birds can be reared in this system. This system is most preferred for organic egg production.
=>Less capital investment
=>Cost of housing is least.
=>Feed requirements are less since birds can consume fairly good amount of feed from grassland.
=>Fertility of soil can be maintained.
=>The scientific management practices cannot be adopted.
=>Eggs are lost when laid inside the dense grasses unless special nests are provided.
=>Losses due to predatory animals are more.
=>Wild birds may induce disease sunless proper care is taken.
SEMI-INTENSIVE SYSTEM 2’nd (CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEMS)
=>As the name indicates birds are half-way reared in houses and half way on ground or range,
i.e. birds are confined to houses in night or as per need and they are also given access to runs.
=>The houses are with solid floors while runs are fields only.
=>The success of rearing depends on maintenance condition of runs to reduce the contamination.
=>Runs can also be used on rotation basis. The stocking density rate on an average for adult birds is 750 per hectare. This system is usually adopted for duck rearing.
=>The feeding and watering facilities are provided in the pen.
=>More economical use of land compared to free range system
=>Protection of birds from extreme climatic conditions
=>Control over scientific operation to some extent is possible
=>High cost for fencing.
=>Need for routine cleaning and removal of litter material from the pen.
Read More:- LAYOUT OF POULTRY FARM
INTENSIVE SYSTEM (3’rd CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEMS)
Birds are totally confined to houses either on ground/floor or on wire-netting floor in cages or on slats.
It is the most efficient,convenient and economical system for modern poultry production with huge numbers.
=>Minimum land is required for farming.
=>Farms can be located near market area.
=>Day-to-day management is easier.
=>The production performance is higher as more energy is saved due to restricted movements.
=>Scientific management practices like breeding,feeding,medication, culling etc. can be applied easily and accurately.
=>The sick birds can be detected,isolated and treated easily.
=>Birds’ welfare is affected. They cannot perform the natural behaviour like roosting,spreading wings,scratching the floor with legs etc.
=>Since they are not exposed to outside sunlight and feed sources,all the nutrients should be provided in balanced manner to avoid nutritionally deficient diseases.
=>Chances for spreading of diseases are more.
DEEP LITTER SYSTEM (4’th CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEMS)
=>In this system the birds are kept inside the house all the time.
=>Arrangement for feed, water and nest are made inside the house.
=>The birds are kept on suitable litter material of about 3”to 5”depth.
=>The word litter is used for fresh litter material spread on the floor.
=>Usually paddy husk,sawdust,ground nut hulls,chopped paddy straw or wood shavings are used as litter materials.
=>This arrangement saves labour involved in frequent cleaning of faecal matter (droppings),how ever it needs periodical stirring.
=>The litter is spread on the floor in layers of 2”height every fortnightly till there quired depth is achieved.
=>Vit B2 and Vit B12 are made available to birds from the litter material by the bacterial
=> The welfare of birds is maintained to some extend
=> The deep litter manure is a useful
=> Lesser nuisance from flies when compared to cage system.
=>Because of the direct contact between bird and litter, bacterial and parasitic disease may be a
=> Respiratory problems may emerge due to dust from the
=>The cost of litter is an additional expenditure on production
=>Faults in ventilation can have more serious consequences than in the cage system
The built up litter (5’th CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEMS)
=>Deep litter or built up litter is accumulation and decomposition of litter material and excreta until it reaches a depth of 8” to 12”, after an original start of 3” to 5”
=>Bacterial action decomposes litter and excreta into crumble form and heat is produced during decomposition which keeps litter dry and warm.
=> If the amount of droppings exceeds the litter, fresh litter will be added to lower the amount of
=> Periodical stirring of the litter should be carried out for an effective functioning of built-up
=>After one year, the litter is changed and the decomposed litter is used as good quality
=>The best built-up litter should be dry, friable and free from obnoxious odour.
SLATTED (SLOTTED) FLOOR SYSTEM (6’th CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEMS)
=>In a slatted floor, iron rods or wood reapers are used as floor, usually 2-3 feet above the ground level to facilitate fall of droppings through slats.
=>Wooden reapers or iron rods of 2” diameter can be used on lengthwise of the house with interspaces of 1” between
=>Less floor space per bird is needed when compared to solid floor system.
=>Bedding is eliminated
=>Manure handling is avoided
=>Saving in labour
=>Soil borne infection is controlled
=>Higher initial cost than conventional solid floors
=>Less flexibility in the use of the building
=>Any spilled feed is lost through the slots
=>More fly Problem
SLAT (SLOT) CUM LITTER SYSTEM (7’th CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEMS)
This system is commonly practiced for rearing birds for hatching eggs production, particularly meat-type breeders. Here, a part of the floor area is covered with slats.
=>Usually, 60% of the floor area is covered with slats and rest with litter.
=>Feeders and waterers are arranged in both slat and litter
=>In case of breeder flock, nest boxes are usually kept on litter area.
=>More eggs can be produced per unit of floor space than all solid floors.
=>Fertility is better with the slat cum litter house than with the all-slat house.
=>Housing investment is higher with the slat cum litter house than with the all-litter
=>The separation of birds from the manure beneath the slats commonly results in fly Problem.
CAGE SYSTEM (8’th CLASSIFICATION OF POULTRY HOUSING SYSTEMS)
=>This system involves rearing of poultry on raised wire netting floor in smaller compartments, called cages, either fitted with stands on floor of house or hanged from the
=>It has been proved very efficient for laying operations, right from day– old to till
=>At present, 75% of commercial layers in the world are kept in cages.
=>Feeders and waterers are attached to cages from outside except nipple waterers, for which pipeline is installed through or above cages.
=>Auto-operated feeding trolleys and egg collection belts can also be used in this rearing
=>The droppings are either collected in trays underneath cages or on belts or on the floor or deep pit under cages, depending on type of
=>Minimum floor space is needed
=>More number of eggs per hen can be received
=>Less feed wastage
=>Better feed efficiency
=>Protection from internal parasites and soil borne illnesses
=>Sick and unproductive birds can be easily identified and
=>Clean eggs production
=>Vices like egg eating, pecking is minimal.
=>Broodiness is minimal
=>No need of litter material
=>Artificial Insemination (AI) can be
=>High initial investment
=>Handling of manure may be Generally, flies become a greater nuisance.
=>The incidence of blood spots in egg is more
=>Problem of cage layer fatigue. (It is a condition, in which laying birds in cages develop It may be due to Ca and P deficiency but the exact reason is not known)
=>In case of broilers, incidence of breast blisters is more, especially when the broilers weight is more than 1.5 kg.
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