Common Diseases In Cattle
1. TYMPANY : Also known as bloat.
ETIOLOGY : Excessive fermentation of succulent feed in rumen.
SYMPTOMS : Left side of the abdomen is bloated, uneasiness, stamping and peddling of hind legs, Difficulty in respiration.
TREATMENT : Massage the abdomen Carminatives e.g. Ginger, asafetida, turpentine oil mixed with linseed oil followed by Mg SO4 and NaSO4. In severe condition puncture the
rumen by trochor and canula.
Avoid succulent and starchy feeds.
2. ACETONEMIA or KETOSIS:
Metabolic disease and occurs within few days or few weeks after calving.
ETIOLOGY : Disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism.
SYMPTOMS : Sweetish acetone like odour noticed in expired air, milk, urine, loss of appetite, Rapid drop in milk production, rapid loss of body weight, stiffness, nervousness
TREATMENT : 5% glucose 500 ml I/V for 3-4 days. Propylene glycol 225 gms twice daily for 2 days
PREVENTION : Feeding of well balanced diet i.e. CHO, vitamins, minerals and proteins
Frequent expulsion of profuse loose watery faeces is called Diarrhoea.
Constant irritation by faulty diet Abrupt change in roughages to grain
Cold, overwork, stress
Bacterial and viral
Hindquarters soiled with faeces
Dehydrated with sunken eyes
TREATMENT: Depends upon causative agents
Parasitic Diarrhoea – Anthelementhics
Bacterial — Antibiotics, Sulfanamides
3. MASTITIS: Inflammation of mammary glands.
ETIOLOGY: Bacterial Streptococcus agalactiae, and staphylococcus aureus, coliform organisms
a) Peracute – swelling, heat, pain, abnormal secretion in the gland, Fever, depression and anorexia
b) Acute – Fever and depression, changes in the gland similar to above
c) Subacute – No systematic changes, changes in the gland and secretions are less marked
d) Subclinical – In which changes in the gland detected by tests
Changes in the secretions – wateriness with flakes, yellowish clots.
a) Penicillin is the drug of choice for streptococcal and staphylococcal mastitis
b) Streptomycin for gram negative bacteria.
c) Enrofloxaccin , Gentamycin
a) Milking machine function and milking procedure check and correct where necessary.
b) Milking hygiene
1. ANTHRAX: An acute, febrile disease
ETIOLOGY: Bacillus anthracis.
a) Peracute – highly fatal with tarry blood oozing from, natural orifices & death
b) Acute and subacute – high fever, staggering, convulsions
c) Animal is highly bloated with all the four legs stretched out
a) By vaccination
b) Dead body should not be open for PM examination
c) Dead body should be burried 2 metres below the surface and 15 cm layers of unslaked lime be put around the body
2. BLACK QUARTER:
ETIOLOGY: Clostridium chauvoei
SYMPTOMS: High fever, emphysematous swelling of subcutaneous tissues Producing cripitating sound on applying pressure,lameness,and death within 48 hrs.
a. Carcasses of the animals buried deep and covered within Lime
3. BRUCELLOSIS : (Contagious abortion)
Etiology : Brucella abortus
a) Reduced milk yield
b) Abortion occurs in the last 3 months of pregnancy
c) Opaques vaginal discharge before abortion.
d) ROP (Retention of placenta)
TREATMENT: No known cure for brucellosis in domestic animals
a) Vaccination of female calves upto 10 months of age. Intraocular low dose vaccine in adults
b) Adopt sanitary measure for contagious and infectious diseases
4. TUBER CULOSIS
DEFINITION : It‘s a Chronic infectious disease of mammals caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and characterised by the development of tubercles and abscess formation with
resulting caseation and calcification.
ETIOLOGY: Mycobacterium tuberculosis
TRANSMISSION: a) Contamination of feed and water b) Aerosol.
SYMPTOMS: In early stages lesions are localised, general malaise, intermittent fever. Dry husky cough gradual emaciation, persistant diarrhoea hard pain less enlargement of the
mammary glands lesions nodular or diffused. Consistency of the milk affected, watery milk.
TREATMENT AND CONTROL:
b) Isonicotinic acid hydrazide
a) Test and slaughter
b) Test and segregation
5. JOHNE’S DISEASE or PARATUBERCULOSIS
ETIOLOGY: Mycobacterium paratuberculosis
DEFINITION: Chronic infectious disease of ruminants characterized by progressive, wasting and diarrhoea.
Symptoms: In females strain of parturition and lactation leads to clinical disease, there is no fever, normal appetite but consumes more water. Anemia, emaciation and diarrhoea and dehydration.
TREATMENT AND PREVENTION : No Treatment is known to be effective. It can be controlled by detection of disease, segregation of affected animals. Disinfection, weaning of calves at birth.
6. HAEMORRHAGIC SEPTI CEMIA / PASTEURELLOSIS
DEFINITION: Highly infectious disease, acute in nature
ETIOLOGY: Pasteurella multocida
TRANSMISSION: Contamination of food and water.
a) acute oedematous form – hot painful, subcutaneous swelling appears on the throat and neck region. Respiratory distress, Rise in temperature 40°C, asphyxiation and causes death.
b) Pulmonary form: Pneumonia, respiratory distress and death
c) Sub-acute enteric form: Enteritis, diarrhoea, emaciation and no death.
TREATMENT: Broad spectrum antibiotics 20 mg/kg body weight
CONTROL: Yearly prophylactic vaccination with oil adjuvant vaccine annually
1. FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE (FMD)
ETIOLOGY: Apthovirus – O, A, C, and Asia-1
TRANSMISSION: Direct contact with affected animal. Indirectly through contaminated water, pastures utensils, straw and feed.
SYMPTOMS: Initially high fever, sluggishness, and anorexia. Profuse stringy salivation. Smacking of the lips and formation of Vesicles on mucous membrane of mouth and foot. Lameness, decrease in the milk yield and abortion.
TREATMENT: No Treatment. Ulcers in the mouth and foot can be treated with application of antiseptics like Kmno4 solution and Boroglycerine is applied.
PREVENTION: six monthly vaccination
2. INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS : (IBR)
ETIOLOGY: Bovine herpes virus – 1
DEFINITION: Acute disease caused by a virus and secondary bacterial infection characterised by inflammation of respiratory tract, genital tract and conjunctiva.
I. Respiratory form:
a) Elevation of temperature, hyperemia of nasal mucous
membrane and nasal discharge
b) Necrotic areas covered with fibrinous exudate.
c) Nasal exudate becomes copious mucoid, mucopurrulant.
d) Respiratory distress
e) Decreased milk yield
g) Nostrils and nose pad becomes hyperemic and edematous –
h) Bronchitis with cough.
i) Intestinal involvement diarrhoea with blood streaked faeces.
II Genital form
In males – infectious pustular balanoposthitis.
In females – Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis
Abortion occurs after 3 months of infection.
TREATMENT: Treat for secondary bacterial infection.
CONTROL: Vaccination modified live or killed vaccine. Vaccine to control IBR is not used in India
1) BABESIOSIS :
ETIOLOGY: Babesia bigemina transmitted by ticks
SYMPTOMS: Sudden high fever ranging from 400c to 41.60c Dullness loss of appetite, constipation, coffee colored urine and decrease in milk yield
TREATMENT: Diminizine aceturate (Berenil ®)
PREVENTION: Control of the ticks
2) THEILERIOSIS :
ETIOLOGY: Theileria annulata transmitted by ticks
SYMPTOMS: high fever, weakness, swelling of superficial lymphnode, lack of appetite.
TREATMENT: Buparvoquone (Butalex ®); Tetracyclines
PREVENTION: Control of the ticks, vaccination
ETIOLOGY: Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica
SYMPTOMS: Irritation, atrophy of liver Hemorrhages in the liver, causes sudden death. Oedema under the jaw, anaemia,emaciation, diarrhoea, ascitis and Jaundice.
TREATMENT: Oxyclozanide –15-mg/kg oral; Albendazole –10 mg/kg;
Triclabendazole –10 mg/kg oral; CCl 4 – 1-2.5 ml/sheep, 5-10 ml/cattle.
CONTROL: Reduce the snail population.
SYMPTOMS: Immature flukes cause irritation and damage to the mucous membrane of rumen and reticulum. Diarrhoea, wasting oedema and anemia and death.
1) MANGE : Mites
ETIOLOGY: Sarcoptes scabei var bovis
LESIONS: First appear on head, neck and perennial region, skin eruption, crusted appearance of lesions.
TREATMENT: Ivermectin; Ectoparasiticide; Coumaphos; Toxaphene
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