• Rice covers about 23% of gross cropped area.
• Climatic Conditions- Rainfall more than 125 cm., clayey loam is best, tolerate acidic as well as alkali soil, average monthly temperature should not fall below 21°C as in Orissa, West Bengal, Bihar, Assam & South India.
• Area- Coastal India (south of Bombay in the western coast), eastern India, Chhattisgarh plain, Wainganga valley, alluvial plain of West Bengal, Mahanadi Delta, eastern Assam valley, Cauvery delta.
• Climatic Condition- Cool climate, 30 cm. rainfall during growing period, clayey alluvial is best suitable, raised mainly in area of rainfall annually less than 100cm.
• India is not ideally suited for wheat cultivation due to short & relatively warm and dry winter season. In Punjab best favorable climate exists. It requires 5 to 5 ½ months to ripen but in south the growing period is shorter.
• Climatic conditions for its growth are the same as for wheat. However, it can well thrive even in more cooler climate so its potential area is much wider. But its yield is not as of wheat so its percentage contribution in total food grain production is not much.
• It is useful for production of malt which again is used for brewing beer and other alcoholic products.
• Climatic Condition- area of 4 ½ months free from frost, temperature during growing period 21°- 27°C, but should not fall below 13°C, rainfall – 50-100 cm, well drained loamy soil rich in N2, grown as kharif crop in all the States,
• Area- mainly north of a line connecting Surat with Calcutta (excluding Kutch, West Rajasthan and Ladakh), in the North East (Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram), northern districts of Andhra and adjoining districts of Maharashtra & Bastar (M.P.).
• Climatic Condition – Rainfall below 100 cm, needs 30 cm rain during growing season, mean monthly temperature – 20°C-33°C, clayey deep regur and alluvium for better yield.
• Area – On Indian Plateau west of 80°E meridian; in Maharashtra Plateau region it is the most important cereal, south of Pune 80% agriculturable land under it; in Andhra, Maharashtra, Karnataka as Rabi and as Kharif elsewhere.
• Kharif crop- Arhar/Tur, Moong, Urad, Moth, etc. throughout India. • Rabi crop- Gram, Peas, Khesari, Masur, Urad, etc. in North India.
• Pulses occupies 13% of total Indian cropped area while 90% area under it is rainfed.
• Gram, Peas & Arhar together occupies about 50% of area under all pulses.
• Kharif pulses are grown more in T.N., Gujarat, Maharashtra and Punjab.
• Rabi pulses are grown mainly in MP, UP, Haryana and West Bengal.
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