The Indian agriculture is decided by the soil types and climatic parameters which determine overall agro-ecological setting for nourishment and appropriateness of a crop or set of crops for cultivation. There are three distinct crop seasons in India, namely Kharif, Rabi and Zaid. The Kharif season started with Southwest Monsoon under which the cultivation of tropical crops such as rice, cotton, jute, jowar, bajra and tur are cultivated. The Rabi season starts with the onset of winter in October-November and ends in March-April. Zaid is a short duration summer cropping season beginning after harvesting of Rabi crops.
Cropping pattern: – It means the proportion of area under various crops, at a point of time in a unit area. It indicates the yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops and fallow in an area. Decrease keeping the field vacant.
Cropping System: It is an order in which the crops are cultivated on a piece of land over a fixed period this is cropping system.
There are four cropping systems in India which is discussed below:
1. Rainy Season Cropping Systems: In this system of cropping, Rice, Sorghum, Pearl Millet (Bajra), Maize, Groundnut and Cotton are grown.
2. Winter Cropping Systems: In this system, wheat, barley and oats, sorghum and chickpea are grown.
3. Plantation and other commercial crops: Sugarcane, Tobacco, Potato, Jute, Tea, Coffee, Coconut, Rubber, Spices and condiments are important crops are grown in this system.
4. Mixed Cropping: In this system, pulses and some oilseeds are grown with maize, sorghum and pearl millet.
Types of Cropping System in India
There are three types of cropping system followed in India which is below:
1. Mono-Cropping or Monoculture: In this system, only one crop is grown on farm land year after year. Disadvantage in Mono-cropping
• Improper use of moisture and nutrients from the soil
• Control of crop associated pests and weeds become a problem.
2. Multiple-Cropping: In this system, farmers grow two or more crops on farm land in one calendar year with intensive input management practices. It includes inter-cropping, mixed-cropping and sequence cropping. Growing two or more crops on the same piece of land in one agriculture year is known as ‘Multiple cropping’.
It is the intensification of cropping in time and space dimensions i.e., more number of crops within a year and more number of crops on the same piece of land. It includes intercropping, mixed cropping and sequence cropping.
Mixed cropping: It is the process of growing two or more crops together in the same piece of land. This system of cropping is generally practiced in areas where climatic hazards such as flood, drought, frost etc. are frequent and common.
Sequence cropping: It can be defined as growing of two or more crops in sequence on same piece of land in a farming year. Depending on number of crops grown in a year. It is called double, triple and quadruple cropping involving two, three and four crops respectively.
I. Relay cropping: It is analogous to a relay race where crop hands over land to next crop in quick succession. Ex: Maize – Early Potato – Wheat – Mungo
II. Overlapping system of cropping: In this the succeeding crop is sown in standing proceeding crop thus in this system before harvesting one crop the seeds of next crop are sown. Ex: Maize potato onion bendi in North India.
III. Ratoon cropping: It refers to raising a crop with re growth coming out of roots or stalks after harvest of the crop. Ex: Sugarcane. IV. Multi Storeyed System: Growing of plants of different heights in same field at the same time is termed as multi-storeyed cropping. Ex: Coconut – Piper – banana – Pineapple.
3. Inter-cropping: In this system, farmers grow two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in one calendar year. The Indian agricultural practices are still lacking by intensive planning because India has diversified agroclimatic zone, which is unfortunately not giving sufficient production. If our farming system relied on modern cropping pattern and cropping system, then we have a predominance of food grain crops, our farming will also inclined towards commercial crops and most importantly it will noticeable increase in the production of individual crops.
Crop rotation: It is a process of growing different crops in succession on a piece of land in a specific period of time with an object to get maximum profit from least investment without impairing soil fertility.
Principles of crop rotation:
1. The crops with tap roots should be fall by those which have a fibrous root system
2. The leguminous crops should be grown after non leguminous crops.
3. More exhaustive crops should be followed by less exhaustive crop.
4. Selection of crops should be demand based.
5. Selection of crops should be problem based.
6. The crops of the same family should not be grown in succession because the act like alternate hast for insects, pests and disease pathogens.
7. An ideal crop rotation is one which provides maximum employment to the family and farm labour, the machines and equipment’s are efficiently used then all the agriculture operations are done simultaneously.
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