Definations and Terms used in Forestry
1. Forestry: Forestry has been defned as ‘the theory and practice of all that constitutes the creation, conservation and scientifc management of forests and the utilization of their resources.
2. Silviculture: The terms silviculture, commonly refers only to certain aspects of theory and practice of raising forests crops. OR Silviculture pertains to the establishment, development, are and reproduction of forests crops.
3. Pollarding: This is a process in which the branch of a plant is cut off in order to produce a fush of new shoots. Pollarding is carried out at a height which is above the reach of browsing animals. It has been widely adopted on salix trees in Kashmir Valley. (Willow), Hard-wickia binata in A.P. (Anjan), Grewia oppositifolia in U.P. Hills (Silver oak type)
4. Lopping: It pertains to the cutting of branches or even young stems. This leads to the development of new shoots. It is carried out on Diospyros (Temburni) for bidi industry, also in number of broad leaved species for fuel and fodder and as Quercus incana (Indiana oak), morus etc, for rearing silkworm.
5. Pruning: Means the cutting of branches from the bole in order to maintain the quality of timber.
6. Taungya system: It was frst evolved in Burma in 1850 as a mode of replanting vast teak areas. Taungya is a Burmas word. (Toung hill, ya – cultivation). This is a modifed from of shifting cultivation of which the labour has permission to raise crop on the land, but, with this, they are responsible for planting, of the forest species, also for protection and well being of the plantation. After about fve years or so, they are required to move to another patch of land.
7. Coppice: When certain plants or seedling are cut from near ground level, they produce a fush of fresh shoots. This is known as coppicing.
8. Seed orchards: are plantations which may raised exclusively with the aim of producing seed.
Seed Production areas or seed stands:
Which are area set aside exclusively for the purpose
(i) to produce seed of high quality from genetically superior trees available in the stand
(ii) to concentrate seed collecting operation in a small sphere or area. The seed stands are established by
removal of the inferior frees, seed orchards are plantation of genetically superior trees isolated to reduce pollination from genetically inferior once.
Seeds orchards may be of two types:
(i) Clonal: raised by grafting clones of superior trees on 2-3 year old seedlings
(2) Seedling raised from obtained from seeds of superior trees.
9. Pricking out: When the seedlings have to be kept in the nursery for more than a year, it must be transferred to beds, other than the seedling beds. This is known as pricking out or to transplant small seedlings individually in to nursery beds or boxes.
10.Wind breaks: Is a protective plantation in a certain area, against strong winds. It is usually comprised of a few rows of trees (or shrubs) spaces at 0.5 to 2.5 m apart.)
11. Shelter belts: is a wide zone of trees, shrubs and grasses, planted in rows, usually at right angles to the direction of the prevailing winds. Its aims are:
a. To defect the air current.
b. To reduce the velocity of prevailing winds
c. To provide general protection
d. To protect the leeward area from the desiccating effects of hot winds.
12. Tending: Tending is a board terms given to operation which are carried out for the well being of forest crops, at any stage of it life, involving operation both on the crop itself and on its competing vegetation e.g. weeding, cleaning, thinning, improvement feeling etc. However, tending does not include operation concerning, regeneration such as regeneration feeling, soil working, control burning etc.
13. Felling: Felling comprise of removal of trees either singly or in small groups scattered all over the forest.
14. Afforestation: Establishing a forest by artifcial means on an area on which not forest vegetation has existed for a long time in the past.
15. Reforestation: Re-establishing a forest, by artifcial means on an area which previously bore forest vegetation, and which may have been felled or otherwise cleared in the recent past.
16. Age crop: The age of a regular crop corresponding to its crop diameters.
17. Age classification: The division of a crop according to difference in age OR the allotment of woods to age classes.
18. Alpine: Zone of vegetation where winter is server, slow fall heavy, the mean annual temperature is 450F and the mean January temperature below 300F. In India Himalayan at the altitude above 10,000 ft.
19. Basal area: The area of the cross section of a stem at breast height, when applied to a crop, the sum of basal areas of all the stems or the total basal areas per unit area.
20. Bole: The main stem of a tree.
21. Breast height: Almost universally adopted as the standard height for measuring the girth, diameter and a basal areas of standing trees. India 4’6” (1.37m). In U.K. and most commonwealth countries 4’.3” (1.30m)
22. Coupe: A felling area, usually one of an annual series unless otherwise stated. Preferable numbered with Roman numbers as, I, II, III etc.
23. Crown: The upper branchy part of the tree above the bole.
24. Dendrology: The identifcation and systematic classifcation of trees.
25. Reserved forests: an area so constituted under the Indian Forest Act or other Forests law.
26. Protected forests: A legal terms for an area subjected to limited degrees of protection under the provision of Chapter IV of the Indian Forest Act.
27. Unclassed forest: Forest land owned by Government but not constituted in to a reserved, village or protected forest.
28. Log: The stem of a tree or a length of stem or branch after felling and trimming.
29. Logging: Operation comprising felling of trees, limbing, bucking and transportation of the resulting product out of the forest timber harvesting (Bucking-Act of being)
30. Pole: A young tree from the time when the lower branches begin to fall off to the time when rate of height growth begins to slow down and crown expansion becomes marked.
31. Raft: An assemblage of logs, timbers or bamboos tied together or enclosed within a
boom for transport by foating.
32. Scrub: Inferior growth consisting chiefy of small or stunted trees and shrubs.
33. Stand: An aggregation of trees or other growth possessing sufcient uniformity in composition, constitution, age arrangement or condition, to be distinguished from adjacent crops and forming a silvicultural unit.
34. Succession: The gradual replacement of one community by another in the development of vegetation towards a climax