Definitions & Terms used in Irrigation


Hydroscopic Water: Because of attraction interactions in particle surfaces, water is absorbed from a water vapour atmosphere.

Hysteresis: During reversion, it is the log of one of the two linked processes or events.

Indicator Plant: It is the plant that, via its existence or growth character, represents a certain growing circumstance.

Infiltration Rate: When there is no divergent flow at the boundaries, it is the maximum rate at which a soil can absorb water in a particular condition and at a given period.

Intake Rate or Infiltration Velocity: It is the rate of water entry into the soil represented as a depth of water per unit area applied or soil flow divergence.

Irrigation Requirement: It refers to the amount of water necessary for agricultural production, excluding precipitation. This equates to the net irrigation demand plus additional economically unnecessary losses. It is frequently expressed in great detail for a specific period of time.

Leaching: It is the removal of soluble particles from the soil by the passage of water.

Leaching Requirement: It’s the percentage of water entering the soil that has to pass through the root zone in order for soil salinity to stay below a certain level.

Oasis effect: It’s a heat exchange in which the air above the crop is cooled to provide heat for evaporation.

Percolation:The downward passage of water through the soil is referred to as evaporation.

Permanent Wilting Point (PWP): The moisture level in percentage of soil at which virtually all plants wilt and do not recover in a humid dark room unless water is provided from an outside source is known as the permanent wilting point. This is the lowest point in the available moisture range when plant development is fully stopped. The force with which dry earth holds moisture at this point is equal to 15 atmospheres.

Permeability: The capacity of a porous media to transport fluids is known as permeability. Hydraulic conductivity and inherent permeability are two terms that might be used to describe it.

PF: The total tension with which water is retained by soil is represented by the logarithm of height in cm of a column of water.

PH: It’s the hydrogen ion concentration’s negative logarithm.

Potential Evaporation: It depicts evaporation off the surface of a vast amount of free water. There is no assumption that addicting energy has any impact. It is mostly determined by the climate’s evaporative requirement.

Potential Evapo-transpiration: It’s the quantity of water evaporated per unit of time from a short uniform green crop that’s actively developing and covers a large area while never running out of water. The phrase “potential transpiration” is preferred by Penman.

Seepage: It is the water that has escaped through the soil due to gravity.

Agricultural Drainage: It is the process of removing surplus water, also known as free or gravitational water, from the surface or below the surface of farmland in order to produce favourable conditions for the plot’s appropriate growth and development.

Surface Drainage: Subsurface drainage occurs when surplus water saturates the pores gaps in the soil and the water is removed by a downward flow through the soil.

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