Diseases of Cucumber and squash
1.Vascular Wilt: Erwinia tracheiphila
Symptoms of the disease first appear on a single leaf which suddenly wilts and becomes dull green. The wilting symptoms spread up and down the runner sometimes as a recurring wilt on hot, dry days. Soon infected runners and leaves turn brown and die. The bacteria spread through the xylem vessels of the infected runner to the main stem, then to other runners. Eventually the entire plant shrivels and dies.
Less susceptible plants, such as certain squash varieties, may show dwarfing of growth before the wilt symptoms become apparent.
Creamy white bacterial ooze consisting of thousands of microscopic, rod-shaped bacteria may sometimes be seen in the xylem vascular bundles of an affected stem if it is cut crosswise near the ground and squeezed. This bacterial ooze will string out forming fine, shiny threads (like a spider’s web) if a knife blade or finger is pressed firmly against the cut surface, then slowly drawn away about 1 cm. Two cut stem ends can also be put together, squeezed, then separated to look for shiny strands of bacteria. The sap of a healthy plant is watery and will not string. Sometimes it helps to wait several minutes after cutting to perform the test. This technique is useful in field diagnosis to separate this disease from other vascular wilts. Beware, however, that the technique may not always work (i.e., no bacterial strings occur yet the plant is still infected). The test works better for cucumbers than for muskmelons. Fruit may also show symptoms. Small water-soaked patches form on the surface. These patches eventually turn into shiny decayed spots on the fruit.
It is a motile rod with 4 – 8 peritrichous flagella and capsulated. Agar colonies are small, circular, smooth, glistening white and viscid.
Mode of spread and survival
The bacteria apparently overwinter in cucumber beetles and they appear to multiply in the beetle. The bacterium is not seed borne or soil borne. Bacteria in stems can survive for one month. Beetles prefer to feed on plants with bacterial symptoms than on healthy plants. Beetle can remain infective for atleast three weeks. Striped cucumber beetle and the 12- spotted cucumber beetle help in the spread of the bacterium.
Larger plantings https://www.woolcool.com/xanax-for-sale/ must be protected by insecticides. Some carbaryl (Sevin), malathion, or rotenone insecticides or combination products are registered to treat cucumber beetles. They will provide control of the beetles if applied when beetles first appear in the spring. Early control, beginning as soon as the plants emerge, is most important as a single beetle can introduce the bacteria. One to four generations of the beetle may occur on unprotected plants and applications of these insecticides at weekly intervals may become necessary. Apply a light even coating of the insecticide over the entire plant, especially where the stem emerges from the soil (that is where the beetles often congregate).
2.Scab: Cladosporium cucumerinum
Scab lesions appear on all parts of the vine that are above ground. The first symptoms appear as light water soaked or pale green spots on the leaves. These spots are numerous and appear on and between veins. Similar elongated spots develop on petioles and stems. Gradually, the spots turn grey to white and become angular. The affected leaves near the tip of the vine may be stippled with dead and yellowish
spots, stunted and crinkled. Fruits are infected at all stages of growth but is most susceptible while young. Fruit spots are grey, slightly sunken and about 2.0mm in dia.
Conidia are oblong, dark, mostly aseptate.
Mode of spread and survival
The fungus probably survives in old cucumber refuse or soil in cracks and on seed. It is disseminated by insects, clothings and tools.
The scab organism survives in soil on squash, melon, and pumpkin vines and reportedly may grow extensively as a saprophyte. The fungus may also be seed borne. It is disseminated on clothing and equipment and by insects. The conidia can survive long-distance spread in moist air. The most favorable weather conditions for disease development are wet weather and temperatures near or below 21°C. At 17°C the growing tips of young plants are killed. Conidia germinate and enter susceptible tissue within 9 hr. A spot may appear on leaves within 3 days, and a new crop of spores is produced by the fourth day.
Crop rotation with corn once in 4 years. Grow resistant varieties like Highmoor and Maine no.2. Spray Mancozeb 0.2 %.