A. Dryland farming:
• Dry land areas may be characterized by the following features:
a) Uncertain, ill-.distributed and limited annual rainfall.
b) Occurrence of extensive climatic hazards like draught, flood, etc.
c) Undulating soil surface.
d) Occurrence of extensive and large holdings.
e) Practice of extensive agriculture, i.e., prevalence of mono-cropping etc.
• Problems of dry land farming in India:
a) Uncertain and scarce rainfall make the region susceptible to draught and famine.
b) The soil here is sandy which lacks nutrient materials for soil fertility. Besides the area is prone to soil erosion.
c) The productivity is low and the crops are more susceptible to pests and diseases.
d) These areas lack basic infrastructural facilities like market, transport, storage, refrigeration, etc., hence farmers do not get remunerative prices.
• Strategies for the development of dryland areas :
a) Bunding across the slope and leveling the land should be done before onset of monsoon.
b) Draught resistant varieties of crops should be developed and popularized in these areas.
c) Crop rotation should be followed which should preferably have at least one legume every year. Inter-cropping of oil seeds and pulses should be done with jowar, bajra and maize crops.
d) The sowing period and variety of crops should be decided on the basis of arrival, duration and amount of rainfall.
B. Organic farming:
• As per United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), organic farming is a system which avoids or largely excludes the use of synthetic inputs (such as fertilizers, pesticides, hormones, feed additives etc.) and feasibly rely upon crop rotations, crop residues, animal manures, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives and biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection.
• The key characteristics of organic farming
a) Protecting the long term fertility of soils by maintaining organic matter levels.
b) Providing crop nutrients indirectly using relatively insoluble nutrient sources.
c) Nitrogen self-sufficiency through the use of legumes and biological nitrogen fixation.
d) Weed, disease and pest control relying primarily on crop rotations, natural predators.
e) The extensive management of livestock, paying full regard to their evolutionary adaptations.
f) Careful attention to the impact of the farming system on the wider environment and the conservation of wildlife and natural habitats.
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