Environmental Science One Liner For Competitive exam-2

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Environmental Science One Liner

Environmental Science

● About 22% (770·1 lac hectare) of the geographical area of India is covered under forest.

● About-10 years or so (time), are required to become a full tree of Hill Peepal (Popululas sps), Poplar-5-6 years and Devdar (Cendrus diodara)–nearly 200 years.

● In the benefits of forest products are; timber wood, bark, fuel, medicines, flower, fruit, gum, for the human needs, and also shelter to the wild animals, etc.

● The concepts under forest management and essentials are; forest management should be mobile (dynamic) and be modified according to the situation.

● The fundamental conditions in forest management are; Two methods of yield expression viz.,

(i) The flow of forest products expresses in quantity or in price;

(ii) The amount/or quantity/price of forest products in any unit be measured in a specific period.

(Environmental Science One Liner)

● On 5 June, 1972 in Sweden at Stockholm, the ‘World Convention’ of 12 United States on ‘Human Environment’ was organised, wherein the megnacart was awarded to environment and much more discussion was made especially; on environment.

● Our surrounding natural environment, in which we and other bio-lives is called environment, say in other words, a group of all external factors influences on any biotic element.

● Bio-sphere means the total space, where life is found in any form. Three large systems of bio-sphere–viz., Hydrosphere, atmosphere and Lythosphere.

● In India, the word ‘Ecology’ came into existance in 1960 and so.

● The Wild Animal Protection Council was setup in 1952.

(Environmental Science One Liner)

● World Nature Day—3 October.

● World Standards Day—14 October.

● World Food Day—16 October.

● International Bio-diversity Day—22 May.

● World Pollution Prevention Day—2 Dec.

● In India, the State-level Ecological Council was constituted for the first time in 1970.

● In private sector, for the first time, scientific Institution Bad Kaner Ecological Foundation in 1971 was set-up.

● In 1972, National Environment Planning and Co-ordinated Commission was constituted, and also the Advisory Committee was set-up.

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● ‘NEERI’—National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (Maharashtra) is an apex Institute for Environmental matters and on the report of this Institute, the decision was taken to keep away Kilns (bricks-Kilns) around 25 km from ‘Taj Mahal’ at Agra for controlling the pollution and it is effective.

● On 21 January, 1980, for the first time, the presidential lecture on ‘Environment Protection’ was delivered in both the houses of parliament, when Digvijai Singh was the then Environment Deputy Minister.

● The Chipko movement (U.P. and now in Uttaranchal) was started in 1973 from Gopeshwar, headed by Sunderlal Bahuguna.

● Central Himalayan Environmental Institute, Nainital (1980) and ‘SHERPA’–Society for Himalayan Environmental Rehabilitation and Peoples Action Institute (1984) were established.

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● Pahar Institute Nainital–Poeples Association for Himalyan Areas Research was established in 1982 by the social workers, teachers and students in the leadership of Dr. Shekhar Pathak, from where ‘Pahar’ Magazine is published.

● ‘INSONA’–Indian Society for Naturalist at Vadodara, Gujarat in 1975; ‘SOCLEAN’– Society for Clean Environment, Maharashtra; ‘APICO’ Movement Karnataka; Indian Environment Association, Delhi-1980 and Uttarakhand Research Institute (1985) were established.

● The amount of CO2 has increased 0·14% in last 100 years in atmosphere due to air pollution.

● There is a scientific concept that the gases are formed from the residues of nitrogen, if their amount in air has increased from 5 ppm (part per million or part per 10 lakh part) to 25 ppm, then that becomes harmful; for example, the created harmful gases at war period; the heaps of wastes in middle of village (s), and wasteresidues of nitrogen in excreta in pits or heaps in villages.

● The unhealthy lungs, asthema, TB disease etc., are created by polluted air.

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● According to the scientists of ‘National Environmental and Engineering Research Institute’ (NEERI) Nagpur, nearly 75% part of the available water is polluted in the country.

● On 18 July, 1983 in Mumbai, the Acid Rains occur, and hence, on account of this, that day was considered the blackest day in the history of pollution in India.

● With the continuous and heavy use of agricultural chemicals like; Ammonium Sulphate, a huge amount of SO2 is accumulated in agricultural fields; and that SO2 gas forms Sulphuric Acid combining with particles presented in atmosphere, and that affects plants adversely and even soils become acidic in nature.

● In ‘Jhum’ Cultivation (or ‘Jhuming’), the atmosphere spoils due to de-forestation and residue fire and this type of cultivation is being practised in North-Eastern Region / States (Assam, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Tripura) and in some tribal areas.

(Environmental Science One Liner)

● The poisonous air component (Smoke) makes ‘Smog’, when combines with ‘Fog’ and that is more harmful to crops and trees, because the stomata remains close due to dust particles (smokes), consequently photo-synthesis checks and finally the plants die.

● Insecticide Act 1968; Insecticide (Ammended) Act 1972 was passed by the Govt. of India to control chemical pollution.

● ‘Nature does nothing uselessly’—Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.

● ‘Nature does nothing uselessly’—Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.

● The standing 5-6 Elephants in group in forest say “We are to stay here” meaning thereby do’nt quarrel among themselves.

(Environmental Science One Liner)

● About Nonmenclature in Agriculture :

* Himachal Pradesh—The people of H.P. put themselves the name Himachal Pradesh. The Home Name—‘Achala’ (in Sanskrit) meaning a mountain.

* Nepier grass (Elephant grass)—It termed on the name of colonel Nepier.

* Cereal crops—Means grain crops likewheat, rice etc. In Italy (near Roma city), there is ‘Cereale Goddess’ temple (i.e., Grain Giver Goddes).

* Cereale where fair is held every year and this is celebrated on ripening of wheat crop there.

* Punjab is said to be the— Food Basket of India— Grain Storage of India; because, 40-50% rice and 50-70% wheat are produced in the state.

Facts & Acts related to Environment & Forest

● The Prevention of Cruelty to Animal Act, 1960 (59 of 1960)

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● The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991 (6 of 1991)

● The National Environment Tribunal Act, 1995 (27 of 1995)

● The Indian Forest Act, 1927 (16 of 1927)

● The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 (53 of 1972)

● The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Cess Act, 1977 (36 of 1977)

● The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 (69 of 1980)

● The Air Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 (14 of 1981)

● The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986)

● The Water Prevention & Control of Pollution Act, 1974 (6 of 1974)

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● The National Environment Appellate Authority Act, 1997 (22 of 1997)

● National Forest Policy, 1988 Note—(For better climate, atleast–33% area should be under forest in India, which is presently 21·81% of geographical area.)

● Natural conservation strategy & Policy statement on Environment & Development, 1992

● Now, it has reduced to 1/3 area of forest, compared to 10,000 years ago.

● Water Resource Potential in India–2009

● Policy statement on Abatement of Pollution, 1992

● National Environmental Policy, 2006

● Av. Annual Water Availability—1869 BCM (Billion Cubic Meter)

● Botanical Survey of India (BSI)–Established 13 Feb., 1890

● Of which; Total usable water Resources—1123 BCM;

● Surface Water—690 BCM and Ground water— 433 BCM.

● Surface water 690 BCM and ground water—433 BCM.

(Environmental Science One Liner)

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