Environmental Science One Liner
● National Bird—Indian Peacock (Pavo cristatus)
● National Tree—Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis)
Slogan— Plant Trees, Save Earth
● Various Environmental and Forestry Programmes are related to the Ministry of Environment and Forests (GOI)-a nodal agency for planning, promotion, co-ordination and over-seeing.
● Forest Survey of India (FSI)-established in 1981, is entrusted with task of surveying the forest resources of the country.(Environmental Science One Liner)
● The Ministry of Environment and Forests also acts as the nodal agency for ‘UNEP’ (United Nations Environment Programmes), Integrated Hill Development–related International Centre.
● Various Programmes Related to Environment & Forests—Survey of Natural Resources, Bio-sphere Reserves, Wetlands, Mangroves and Coral Reefs, Bio-diversity, Medicinal Plants, Forests-Forest Policy & Law; Integrated Forest Protection Scheme, Wildlife, Environment Impact Assessment, Prevention and Control of Pollution, Management of Hazardous substances, National River Conservation-Ganga Action Plan, Gomti Action Plan; National Lake Conservation Plan (NLCP)–Powai in Maharashtra, Ooty and Kodaikanal in Tamil Nadu (3 lakes), National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB), Research Promotion; Forestry Reserach, Wildlife Research, Environmental Information System (ENVIS) and International Co-operation.
● Climate—A Latin word was used first in 17th century.(Environmental Science One Liner)
● Related Fellowships & Prizes (Awards) ‘Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar’ (IGPP)—Awarded every year to organization and individual-worth Rs. 5 lakh, a silver trophy and citation. ‘Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshmitra Award’ (IPVM)—Constituted by the Environment &
Forest Ministry in 1986 for out-standing contribution of Individual & Organization in afforestation and wasteland development fields, annually. Paryavaran Evam Van Mantralaya Vishist Vaigyanik Puraskar (PEVMVVP)—Instituted in 1992-93 for original and applied research among Group ‘A’ scientists; every year two awards worth Rs. 20 thousand each. Pitambar Pant National Environment Fellowship Award (PPNEFA)—Instituted in 1978, awarded annually to excellence in research related to Environmental science. B.P. Pal National Environment Fellowship Award (BPPNEF)—For bio-diversity in research & development through R & D. Rajiv Gandhi National Wildlife Conservation Award and Dr. Salim Ali & Kailash Sankhala Fellowships—For eminent officers and field workers for exemplary work in wildlife conservation and research. ‘Amritadevi Wildlife Protection Award’ (AWPA)—In the name of Amritadevi Bishnoi-to village communities for showing courage & valour for protection of wildlife. Janaki Ammal National Award—In Taxonomy, worth Rs. 50 thousand and a citation.(Environmental Science One Liner)
● For the year 1999, Dr. B. P. Pal National Environmental Fellowship Award to Dr. K.P.S. Chandel (VPGR); and Indira Priyadarshini Vrikshamitra Award to Prof. R. Raghvendra Rao (NBRI, Lucknow)
● The Forest Administration in India was started in 19th century and which became the subject of the centre in 1921.
● The objective of Forest Management in early, was for reproduction of some useful species like-Sal (Shoria robusta), Devdar, Sagon (Tetone grandis) etc.
● The forest management means; adoption on scientific, economic and social principles in the working system and administration of any forest-wealth for specific objectives or targets, i.e., The Forest Mangement is the branch of forestry, wherein all related aspects of forests such as; administration, economic, law and social aspects are taken into consideration, and essentially for forest-repropagation by scientific and technical aspects, besides forest conservation and regulations too.
(Environmental Science One Liner)
● Every year celebrated- ‘World Forestry Day-March 21’, ‘World Environment DayJune 5’
● (i) In Sandy Soil—Eucalyptus hybrid, Deshi Babool or Keeker (Acacia nilotica var, indica), Hill Babool or Keeker (Acacia nilotica var. Cupressiformis), Israili Keeker or Babool (Acacia leucocephala), Jund (or Khejri (Prosopis cineria), Jorter (Casuarina equisetifolia), Shesham (Dalbergia sissoo), Siras (Albizia lebbek), Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana), Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Dhrek (Melia azedarach)
(ii) In water-logged (submerged) soils— Arjun (Terminalia arjuna/superba), Kadam (Anthocephalus sicensia), Willos (Calyx sps) and Jamun (Syzygium cumini).
(iii) In Saline and Sodic Soils—Arjun, Keeker (Babool), Neem, Eucalyptus.
● ‘FOREST’—It gives us/Stands for; F-Food, O-Oxygen, R-Rain, E-Environmental Protections Ecological Balance, S-Soil Conservation and T-Timber.(Environmental Science One Liner)
● ‘Man of the Forest’—‘Orangutan’— Primitive of man.
● National Tree—Banyan Tree (Ficus benghalensis)
● Sequoia—Largest plant (115·56 m height) in world, V/s Eucalyptus (99·6 m height).
● Agro-forestry—It gives us 6 F i.e., F1–Food, F2–Feed, F3–Fibre, F4–Fuel, F5–Furniture Timber & F6–Funds. The art of growing crops with forestry (both together)
● Social Forestry—It is a method of forestry, which is meant for social and done by society, so as to meet-out the need of fuel, fodder, fruit and small timber wood. This helps to make economic and effective use of wastelands.
● Social Forestry has several advantages likemaking Ecological balance, provides employment opportunities to poor rural-mass, providing fodder for cattle, provides raw material to cottage industries, silk-worm and cattle, collection and purifying of gum, developing bee-keeping, provides fuel wood for longer period, provides cow-dung (dung), improvement in productivity, stability and making sustainable and bringing unbiasedness in agro-eco-system. (Environmental Science One Liner)
● According to National Forest Policy (1894) and later on revised time to time as latest in 1988), there must be forests on 33% of the country’s area.
● India’s population as on 1 March, 2001 (census 2001) growing @ 1·94% annual and stood at 1,027 million and accounts for a meagre 2·4% of the world surface and also supports to 16·7% of the world population. By the year 2040, India would stand first in the world in respect of human population.
● According to the world report (1996), in India every year more than 40,000 people will be affected for casual death by air-pollution and Delhi would be the 4th polluted city in the world.
● Of the total air pollution, nearly 70% smoke is generated/excreted from vehicles alone. According to the survey (1989) of the Central Pollution Control Board, in Delhi nearly 872 tonnes particulate, SO2, Oxide of nitrogen, Carbon and hydro-carbon are excreted. (Environmental Science One Liner)
● Smog (Smog = Smoke + Fog) is very harmful to human; and it can be assessed easily that in 1952, due to ‘London Smog’, the city remained covered by a smog sheet of grey colour for 5 days and left the bad effects, resulting the death of nearly 4000 people and several peoples remained affected by bronchitis and heart disease.
● In city areas, the cause of environmental pollution is the suspended particulate matter. During winter, in air, the level of particulate matter-dust and carbon coated poisonous gases is more than 12 times of the standard level.
● The ‘Acid Rains’ is the another component of air pollution. The acid fumes of SO2 excreted by Industries and Nitrogen Oxides combine with water and ice, resulting thereby the acid rains. Therefore, the pH of first rain after summer is always lesser than the subsequent rains.
● The excretion of CO2 is gradually / continuously increasing in atmosphere. Its amount is increased 30% extra in last two centuries. In the world, the maximum excretion is from CO2 (0·2% per capita); in which India ranked on 6th place. The main source of this poisonous gas is the burning of fossil fuel.(Environmental Science One Liner)
● The main sources of water pollution are; the excreted dung, solid, refuse, particles and other dangerous polluted elements, seewege water and sludge of cities in rivers; sharing 30% of water pollution share. In the water, the amount of poisonous substances like; cyanide and chromium is nearly 20-22 times increased over safe level.
● According to the report of ‘World Health Organization (WHO)’, in India nearly 21% contagious diseases are caused by the use of polluted water. As per the ‘Human Development Report’ (1995) of ‘UNDP’, during the period 1988-93, in India, for nearly 18·57 crore people, the pure drinking water was not available.
● Out of the total Flora & Fauna say; Bio-diversity of the world, nearly 7% part is in India.
● India is one of the 12 mega-bio-diversity countries of the world.
● Out of 18 major centres of bio-diversity in the world, India has two centres say, Western Ghats and East Himalayas.(Environmental Science One Liner)
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