EVS basics -1 for competitive exam

  • Ozone layer is mainly found in the lower stratospheric layer, more appropriately 25
    km height from the ground
  • Troposphere and stratosphere contain 99 % of the total mass of the atmosphere
  • World agriculture started about – 10,000 years back
  • Indian agriculture started about – 6000 years back
  • First biosphere reserve in India is – Nilgiri biosphere reserve
  • Among different Biogeochemical cycle, only phosphorus does not have any
    atmospheric reservoir
  • “Red Data Book” related to categories of threatened, endangered, extinct species
  • Biogas contain 50-60 % methane
  • Green house gases – Co2, CH4, N2O, CFC
  • Of all the green house gases carbon dioxide contributes for maximum in Global
  • Green house gas produced in rice field is – Methane
  • Jatropha is used to produce “Bio fuel”
  • Itai-Itai and Manimata disease is due to Cadmium and Mercury Toxicity.
  • Kyoto protocol signed in 1997, adopted in 2005.
  • 1 kg weight fish has 1 80 mg DDT in body what be in ppm – 80ppm
  • Which chemical is used for preservation – benzoic acid
  • After Bhopal gas tragedy use of which pesticide was banned – Aldicarb
  • Lactose is – glucose + glactose
  • Blue asbestos has – sodium iron silicate
  • In lithosphere which has maximum concentration: Fe/O/Si/Na
    (46.6%)>Si (27.72%)>Al (8.13%)>Fe (5%)>Ca (3.63%)>Na (2.83%)>K
    (2.59%)>Mg (2.09%) up to 16 Km of earth crust.
  • Upper 5 Km of earth crust contain 74% i.e. 3/4th Sedimentary rocks(shale 52%+sand
    stone 15%+limestone & dolomite 7%), 18% Igneous rocks (granite 15% + basalt
    3%) and 8% other rocks are found in whole earth crust contain 95% igneous rocks
    and 5% sedimentary rocks (shale 4%, and sandstone 0.75%, limestone 0.025%)
  • Biodiesel is produced from: trans-esterification of vegitable/animal lipid or oil is a
    monoalkyl ester of long chain fatty acid
  • Ethanol is produced from: fermentation of charbohydrate containing matter eg Corn,
    Sugar cane
  • In India 10% blending is done in gasoline.
  • Metals have: unfilled ‘d’ orbital,
  • Acid rain has pH:  5.6
  • Cattle population per 100 Km2 is maximum in: Haryana
  • Orange is resistant to: a) HF, b) NH3, c) NO2, d) SO2
  • Cd is present in which fertilizer: phosphatic fertilizer
  • Natural radiation contribute what % of total radiation – 83%
  • Who said environment can satisfy the need not the greed: Mahatma Gandhi
  • Fecundity means: ability to reproduce
  • Ability to maintain internal stability is called: Homeostasis\
  • Agent Orange is the code name for a herbicide and defoliant—contaminated
    with TCDD
  • N2O can be detected by: ECD
  • Spectrophotometer is based on principle of: absorption spectrum
  • Biogas contain: 60% Methane and 40% carbon dioxide
  • Bird evolves in- Jurassic period (150 millions year ago)
  • Coca cola contain SnCl2 which is: emulsifier/ antioxidant/ stabilizer ans-b
  • Largest source of S is: volcanic eruption
  • Definition of Niche: functional role of a species in an ecosystem
  • Cybernetics: science of control or regulation
  • Vienna convention on protection of ozone layer was held in year: 1985
  • Highest CEC in which soil: clay
  • Degradation of pesticide is maximum in which soil : clay
  • Denitrification occur in which type of soil: water logged/ anaerobic condition
  • Bioaccumulation occur due to: fat or lipid solubility
  • Traditional detergent contain: phosphorus
  • What get leaked in ship wreck at Haldia in 1993– soda ash
  • Radioactive nuclei involved in Delhi health hazard in 2010- Co-60, gamma radiation
  • Full form of PCBs: polychlorinated biphenyls
  • SQI – soil quality indicator
  • What is bio-concentration factor (BCF) – % of bioaccumulative substances in tissue
    of aquatic organism in relation to concentration of that substance in to environment
    i.e. water whwre organism live = Corg/Cinv X 100, assume accumulation is through
    water only
  • BAF – bio accumulation factor – assume both organism and their food are equally
  • % of water in ocean: 97.5%
  • Fresh water = 2.5% (2% cryosphere or ice, 0.4% ground water, 1% lake (0.02), soil
    (0.005), atmosphere (0.0005), river (0.0001), & biota water
  • Maximum fresh water trapped in: ice cap
  • C-14 is emitter of which ray: α/ β/ γ ans- β
  • Fluoride problem is maximum in which state: Rajasthan
  • Sink of Pb is: smelter/coal
  • Difference between point source and non point source of pollutants
    1. Point source – easily identifiable – sewage/industrial/commercial waste
    2. Non – point source – diffused not easily identifiable – runoff /
      agriculture/atmospheric fall
  • Fog is: liquid (water) in gas/ solid in gas/liquid in liquid ans- liquid in gasIn photochemical smog which has maximum concentration: ozone
  • Recently recognized hot spot in India: NE Himalya

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