Factors affecting cropping pattern

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Factors affecting cropping pattern:

a) Geographical factors like soil moisture temperature, etc. determine the suitability of an area to grow particular crops.

b) However, area actually devoted to a particular will be determined by socioeconomic factors like dietary habits, land leveling cost of cultivation, capacity of farmer’s diffusion of innovation, etc.

c) Besides in any locality, the prevalent cropping systems are the cumulative results of past and present decisions by individuals, communities or governments and their agencies. These decisions are usually based on experience, tradition, expected profit, personal preferences and resources, social and political pressures and so on.

d) The climatic, edaphic and socio-economic diversity of the Indian crop production scene is dotted with many cropping patterns.

e) Socio-economically, the peasantry ranges from the relatively affluent Punjabi farmers who operate with a high input intensity in agriculture to the subsistent farmers of eastern and central India.

• Changes in Cropping Patterns:

With the advent of modern agricultural technology there is a continuous surge for diversified agriculture in terms of crops, primarily on economic considerations. The crop pattern changes due to:

a) Resource related factors covering irrigation, rainfall and soil fertility.

b) Technology related factors covering not only seed, fertilizer, and water technologies but also those related to marketing, storage and processing.

c) Household related factors covering food and fodder self-sufficiency requirement as well as investment capacity.

d) Price related factors covering output and input prices as well as trade policies and other economic policies that affect these prices either directly or indirectly.

e) Institutional and infrastructure related factors covering farm size and tenancy arrangements, research, extension and marketing systems and government regulatory policies.

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