Fish constitutes the most important part of the diet of many people. Fishing has been carried out since ages and human beings have developed various gadgets and technologies for catching all varieties of fish from all regions and masses of water, at all depths as well as in large quantities to take care of the ever increasing population and demands. Today it constitutes one of the largest traded food items.
Organised fishing is practised with the help of equipment specially designed for easy capture of fish. Equipment differs according to the nature of water bodies, and the characteristics of the fish species to be captured.
Principal equipment for fishing includes
1. Sea fishing gears
The various equipment used in fishing are called fishing gears. Most of the large scale fishing is done at sea. Sea fishing gears are of the following types.
Nets: The main gears are made of cotton yarn hemp or other special man-made fibres. Nets are fixed in the tidal region during the low tide. High tide brings the fish along with water flow into the net.
These are very large nets for active fishing. The net encircles a large part of water believed to contain a lot of fish. A Seine is used in running water. Depending upon the nature of water body, different types of Seines (Pure Seine, Shore Seine, etc) are used.
3. Hooks and Lines
Metallic hooks of various sizes and designs are provided with a bait to catch different types of fish. The line is a wire, which carries the hook to various depths and distances from the fishing raft or boat.
A number of fish show a periodic movement form one dwelling place to another. This periodic movement is called migration. Fish migrate to other places for spawning (egg laying)
or to avoid unfavourable climatic conditions. Many fish migrate from one part of the ocean to another at times. Marine fish like Hilsa swim up from sea to fresh water for spawning e.g. cel. Some fresh water fish migrate from lakes to sea for spawning. During winters in the cold part of the globe, water at the surface freezes. The fish migrate to the bottom and remain there till the end of the cold season.
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