Forest Types in India

Forest Types in India

The better defined and more stable units of forest vegetation are referred to as Forest Types or Unit of vegetation which possesses characteristics in physiognomy and structure to permit its differentiation from such other units is called as Forest types:

Champion and Seth have Differentiated 16 Climatic Forest types are as below
1) Tropical wet ever green forests
2) Tropical Semi ever green
3) Tropical Moist deciduous
4) Tropical- Literal and swamp
5) Tropical Dry deciduous
6) Tropical Thom Forest
7) Tropical Dry evergreen
8) Sub T. Broad leaved will F
9) Sub Tropical Pine Forest
10) Sub Tropical Dry evergreen
11) Montane wet temperate
12) Himalayan moist temperate
13) Himalayan Dry temperate
14) Subalpiue
15) Moist subalpiue
16) Dry subalpiue

Natural Ecosystems: Forest types are called as Natural ecosystems.

Artificial Ecosystems: These are created by introducing of species -through plantation. Teak, Nilgiri, Poplar

Exotics: The forest tree species brought in to country, from their natural habitat (foreign country) Eucalyptus, Cashew nut, Australian, Babul, Silver oak, Pines, and Poplar

Indotic: Plant species having Indian origin, Neem, Babul.

The basis for Classification of Forest Types

1. Physiognomy: Evergreen / deciduous habit, very dry, wet
2. Structure: Covers stratifcation, dimensions, ht/spaciy
3. Function: Morphological characters
4. Floristic: Families, genus, sps.
5. Dynamics: Vegetation change, Force in motion
6. Habitat: Climatic and edaphic factors
7. Physiography: Aspect / altitude
8. History: Past History of site.

Classification of Silvicultural System

 There are number of ways for classifcation, but most common is on the basis of Mode of Regeneration and further classifed according to pattern of felling carried out in the crop.

 Two Main Categories or Groups:
1) High Forest Silvicultural Systems
2) Coppice Silvicultural Systems

1) High Forest Silvicultural Systems:
Silvicultural systems in which regeneration is normally of seedling origin either natural or artifcial or combination of both and where rotation is generally long

 A) System of Concentrated Regeneration

a) Clear Felling System:
i) The clear felling system
ii) The clear strip system
iii) The alternate strip system

b) Shelter Wood System:
i) The Uniform System
ii) The Group System
iii) The shelter wood strip system
iv) Anger’s Blender system
v) Eberbird’s Wedge System
vi) The Strip and Group System
vii) The irregular Shelter wood system
viii) The Indian Irregular Shelter wood System

B) System of Diffused Regeneration:
a) The Selection System
b) The Group Selection System

C) Accessory System:
a) Two Storeyed High Forest System
b) High Forest with Reserves System
c) Improvement Fellings

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