1. What are the major constraint for Dryland farming.
A. Wind Erosion
B. Water Erosion
C. Sheet Erosion
D. Both Wind and Water erosion
E. All of the above
Correct Answer – D. Both Wind and Water erosion
Explanation: Dryland agriculture is important for the economy as most of the coarse grain crops, pulses, oilseeds, and raw cotton are grown on these lands. Dryland areas receive rainfall between 500 and 1200 mm. Wind erosion is a serious environmental problem attracting the attention of many across the globe. It is a common phenomenon occurring mostly in flat, bare areas; dry, sandy soils; or anywhere the soil is loose, dry, and finely granulated. Water erosion is the detachment and removal of soil material by water. … Water erosion wears away the earth’s surface. Sheet erosion is the more-or-less uniform removal of soil from the surface. Rill and gully erosion occurs when concentrated runoff cuts conspicuous channels into the soil.
2. Which one is the Stomata closing type of anti transpirant ?
A. Phenyl Mercuric Acetate (PMA)
E. None of these
Correct Answer – A. Phenyl Mercuric Acetate (PMA)
Explanation: Phenylmercuric acetate is an organomercury compound. This compound was formerly used as a preservative in paints, and as a disinfectant. When applied to the leaves of plants, it is an antitranspirant.
3.Which type of Rice is generally grown in submerged land lower in elevation and harvested in summer season?
Correct Answer – C. Boro
Explanation: 1. Boro refers to rice grown in submerged land lower in elevation, grown during January- February to April- May, also called summer rice/ garmadhan. 2. Area under summer rice is 4.4 % and early maturing varieties are mostly grown in this region.
4. When water is available for three irrigation in wheat , than it should apply to.
A. CRT, Late tillering, flowering
B. CRI, Boot stage, Milk Stage
C. CRT, Boot stage, Dought Stage
D. CRT, Milk Stage, Dought Stage
E. CRT, flowering, Boot stage
Correct Answer – B. CRI, Boot stage, Milk Stage
Explanation: Crown root Irrigation (CRI), Boot stage,Milk Stage
5. The style past which is verylong silky filament and present in cluster in maize is known as
Correct Answer – B. Silk
Explanation: Corn silk is a common name for the shiny, thread-like, weak fibers that grow as part of ears of corn (maize); the tuft or tassel of silky fibers that protrude from the tip of the ear of corn. The ear is enclosed in modified leaves called husks.
6. Which one is the famous variety of Bengal gram for the resistance of Ascochyta blight?
D Pusa 256 E Sheetal
Correct Answer – C Gaurav
Explanation: Ascochyta blight of chickpea is caused by the fungal pathogen Ascochyta rabiei (formerly known as Phoma rabiei). A number of varieties with improved resistance to ascochyta blight are now available. Variety selection, along with an understanding of the associated disease management package for the variety being grown, is critical for success.
7. Which pluse is having often cross pollination type made of pollination.
B Bengal Gram
C Pigeon Pea
D Low Pea
E Moth Bean
Correct Answer – C Pigeon Pea
Explanation: The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is a perennial legume from the family Fabaceae. Since its domestication in the Indian subcontinent at least 3,500 years ago, its seeds have become a common food in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It is consumed on a large scale mainly in South Asia and is a major source of protein for the population of the Indian subcontinent.
8. Crop Known as wonder crop or meat for the poor, which is richest and cheapest source of protein and fat is.
A Cow pea
B Ground nut
C Sun flower
E Green bean
Correct Answer – D Soybean
Explanation: The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses. Fat-free (defatted) soybean meal is a significant and cheap source of protein for animal feeds and many packaged meals. For example, soybean products, such as textured vegetable protein (TVP), are ingredients in many meat and dairy substitutes. The beans contain significant amounts of phytic acid, dietary minerals and B vitamins. Soy vegetable oil, used in food and industrial applications, is another product of processing the soybean crop. Traditional unfermented food uses of soybeans include soy milk, from which tofu and tofu skin are made. Fermented soy foods include soy sauce, fermented bean paste, nattō, and tempeh.
9. Among given option which is not the suitable method to judge the sugarcane maturity.
A Among given option which is not the suitable method to judge the sugarcane maturity.
B Bsix seeding(16-18%)
C Eyes start sprouting
D Glucose content(710%)
E None of the above
Correct Answer – D Glucose content(710%)
Explanation: Cane should be harvested only when it is mature. Practical tests to judge maturity are (a) general yellowish colour of whole crop, (b) cessation of growth, (c) swelling of eye buds, (d) metallic sound of cane, (e) breaking of cane at the nodes and (f) Brix saccharometer reading between 21 and 24. Irrigation should be withheld for about 10 to 15 days prior to harvesting.
Harvesting should be done with sharp cane cutting knife and very close to ground. The cane should be crushed within 24 hours to get high recovery. Average yield of ratoon crop is 100 t/ha, pre-seasonal crop is 125 t/ha and that of adsali is 150 t/ha. With best management practices, potential yield of 200 t/ha (ratoon crop), 250 t/ha (preseasonal crop) and 300 t/ha (adsali crop) can be harvested.
10. Which option does not satisfy the definition of weed?
A Unwanted Plant
B Noxious, Poisnous
C Cultivable spp
D Plant out of place
E All of the above satisfy the definition of weed
Correct Answer – D Plant out of place
Explanation: For many readers, the name of this blog will be familiar. A plant out of place is among the most recognizable and commonly cited definitions of a weed, dating back to at least the 1860s.1 Although it is one of the most common definitions, I don’t particularly care for it. There are myriad examples of plants that we consider weeds that are very much in their place. Tall larkspur, for example, is a plant native to high elevation rangelands in the western United States. Larkspur is among the most common causes of cattle poisonings reported in these regions. Because of the high potential for livestock losses, we consider tall larkspur a weed in this setting, even though it is the cattle that are introduced to the area – it is the animal, not the plant, that is out of place.
11. Which one of the following is Rabi Weed?
A Cassia occidentalis
B Euphorbia spp
C Convolvulus arvensis
D Cyperus rotundus
E None of these
Correct Answer – C Convolvulus arvensis
Explanation: Convolvulus arvensis (field bindweed) is a species of bindweed that is rhizomatous and is in the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae), native to Europe and Asia. It is a climbing or creeping herbaceous perennial plant growing to 0.5–2 m high. There are two varieties: Convolvulus arvensis var. arvensis. Leaves broader. Convolvulus arvensis var. linearifolius. Leaves narrower.
12. What will be the Potational Intensity of Maize- Sugarcane-Ratoon type of crop rotation.
Correct Answer – B 100%
Explanation: Ratooning is the agricultural practice of harvesting a monocot crop by cutting most of the above-ground portion but leaving the roots and the growing shoot apices intact so as to allow the plants to recover and produce a fresh crop in the next season. This practice is widely used in the cultivation of crops such as rice, sugarcane, banana, and pineapple. Ratoon crops cannot be perennially renewed, and may be harvested only for a few seasons, as a decline in yield tends to occur due to increased crowding, damage by pests and diseases, and a decline in soil fertility.
13. Which method of irrigation is used for the uniform application of water and to minimise the Percolation losses.
A Check Basin Method
B Border Strip Method
C Furrow Method
D Sugarcane irrigation
E Center Pivot Irrigation
Correct Answer – A Check Basin Method
Explanation: In the surface-irrigation system, water is directly applied to the surface of the soil and is spread by gravity flow incidental to the slope of the land. There are several methods in this system, the commonest being flooding from a ditch, check basin, ring and basin, border strip and furrow.
14. Which one is the type of primary mineral found in soil?
Correct Answer – B Dolomite
Explanation: Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg(CO3)2. The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite. An alternative name sometimes used for the dolomitic rock type is dolostone.
15. What is the percentage of oxygen in the earth crust (outer) composition?
C Laterization D Solodization
E None of these
Correct Answer – C Laterization
Explanation: Laterization. The weathering process by which soils and rocks are depleted of soluble substances, such as silica-rich and alkaline components and enriched with insoluble substances, such as hydrated aluminum and iron oxides.
16. What is the Diameter of Silt particle in (mm)
C < 0.002
D 0.2-2 E > .01
Correct Answer – B 0.002-0.02
Explanation: The next smallest particles are silt particles and have diameters between 0.002 mm and 0.05 mm (in USDA soil taxonomy). The largest particles are sand particles and are larger than 0.05 mm in diameter.
17. What is the apparent specific gravity of soil generally used for various calculation
1) 1.4 g/cm3
2) 1.33 g/cm3
Correct Answer – B 2
Explanation: Apparent specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a volume of the substance to the weight of an equal volume of the reference substance. The reference substance is nearly always water at its densest (4°C) for liquids; for gases it is air at room temperature (21°C).
18. When water is held by a negative pension of 0.3atm (0.1 to 0.3 atm) is known as
A Hygroscopic water
B Capillary water
C Gravitational water
D Hygroscopic coefficient
E None of these
Correct Answer – C Gravitational water
Explanation: Gravitational water is free water moving through soil by the force of gravity. It is largely found in the macropores of soil and very little gravitational water is available to plants as it drains rapidly down the water table in all except the most compact of soils.
19. Which element is immobile in plant but highly mobile in soil?
Correct Answer – B. B
20. What is the percentage of oxygen in the earth crust (outer) composition?
A. 46.6 percent (47%)
Correct Answer – A. 46.6 percent (47%)
Explanation: According to “Essentials of Geology” (7th Ed., Prentice Hall, 2000) by Frederick K. Lutgens and Edward J. Tarbuck, Earth’s crust is made up of several elements: oxygen, 46.6 percent by weight; silicon, 27.7 percent; aluminum, 8.1 percent; iron, 5 percent; calcium, 3.6 percent; sodium, 2.8 percent, potassium, 2.6.
21. To facilitate germination in dormant seeds, a process called scarification is done by-
A. Weakening and opening the hard seed coat by using physical, thermal, and chemical methods.
B. Weakening and opening the hard seed coat by exposing seeds to light.
C. Weakening and opening the hard seed coat by exposing seeds to acids.
D. Weakening and opening the hard seed coat by exposing to water.
E. Weakening and opening the hard seed coat by exposing to micro-organisms.
Correct Answer – A. Weakening and opening the hard seed coat by using physical, thermal, and chemical methods
Explanation: Scarification of seeds is done to break the dormant seed’s outer seed coat open to facilitate germination. In some plants, the seeds have hard outer coat and make it impermissible to water and gases and thus delays germination. Animals do help to scarify seeds by eating the hard-outer covering. Seeds of plants like morning glory, purple hyacinth beans are examples where scarification is done.
22. What is the term that depicts the measure of total cultivated area with certified seeds when compared to farm-saved seeds?
A. Seed growth rate
B. Certified seed rate
C. Seed acceleration rate
D. Total seed production rate
E. Seed replacement rate
Correct Answer – E. Seed replacement rate
Explanation: Seed Replacement Rate (SRR) depicts the total area in percentage that has been cropped or cultivated using certified and quality seeds compared to farm-saved seeds. SRR must be enhanced to achieve agricultural production targets. The high-quality certified seeds are produced by seed farms maintained by government and are distributed to the farmers through agricultural extension centres.
23. Retaining soil moisture is one of the major factors affecting dry-land farming. Water is lost through evaporation from soil surfaces and many methods are applied to prevent the rate of evaporation. One such method is done by applying some material on the soil surface and these materials are called ________.
B. Evaporation inhibitors
D. Surface reactants
Correct Answer – C. Mulches
Explanation: Mulches are type of material used to cover the external soil surface to prevent loss of water from soil surface through evaporation. This method not only helps in water retention of soil but also in soil conservation, soil salinity reduction, soil temperature reduction, and maintains soil structure. There are different types of mulches available like stubble mulch, straw mulch, dust mulch, plastic mulch etc.
24. Name the scheme that helps in seed production by training a group of farmers to produce seeds of different crops for their own use and other farmers use.
A. Hybrid Rice Seed Production Scheme
B. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
C. National Seed Security Mission
D. Integrated Scheme on Seed Production
E. Seed Village
Correct Answer – E. Seed Village
Explanation: Seed Village is a concept formulated in India which aims in training farmers in a village to produce seeds of different crops for their own use and for the use of other farmers in their neighbourhood at an affordable cost. This facilitates easy availability of desired seeds to farmers, increases seed replacement rate, increases quality and quantity of crops produced, and finally both the producer and the consumer are mutually benefited.
25. Which of the following is the viral infectious disease that affects the poultry?
A. Fowl Cholera
C. Fowl Typhoid
D. Avian Salmonellosis
E. Mycoplasma disease
Correct Answer – E. Mycoplasma disease
Explanation: Viral diseases are some of the most important infectious diseases affecting poultry. They are characterised by not being able to be treated, but most can be prevented with vaccines. The more important viral diseases are Newcastle Disease, Fowl pox, Marek’s Disease and Mycoplasma diseases. Some of the bacterial diseases are Fowl Cholera, Pullorum, Fowl Typhoid and Avian Salmonellosis.
26. Which of the following statement is false regarding the characteristics of black soil?
A. Black soil is also called as Regur soil.
B. Black soil is found in areas of the Deccan lava tract covering states like Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh; and along the river valleys of Narmada, Tapi, Godavari, and Krishna.
C. Black soil is formed due to the weathering process of metamorphic rocks.
D. Black soil is rich in magnesium and aluminium.
E. Black soil is mostly clayey and sticky in nature.
Correct Answer – C. Black soil is formed due to the weathering process of metamorphic rocks.
Explanation: The thin material covering the Earth’s surface, soil is formed due to the interaction of factors like rocks, topography, climate, and organisms. Weathering of rocks or the process by which the parent rock material found deep inside the Earth is broken down into smaller particles which is one of the main processes involved in soil formation. Black soil is formed due to the weathering of igneous rocks and basaltic lava rocks. Weathering of metamorphic rocks forms Red soil.
27. Some plants like lentils, peas, alfalfa, soybean, chickpeas, etc., commonly called as leguminous plants which play an important role in maintaining soil fertility by help fixing one of the primary nutrients in the soil. Name the nutrient fixed and the process involved.
A. Phosphorous – phosphorous fixation
B. Potassium – potassium fixation
C. Iron – iron fixation
D. Nitrogen – nitrogen fixation
E. Calcium – calcium fixation
Correct Answer – D. Nitrogen – nitrogen fixation
Explanation: Leguminous plants, belonging to the Fabaceae family, are unique in nature because it contains certain nodules in its roots. The gram-negative Rhizobium species of bacteria found in these root nodules help to capture the atmospheric nitrogen and trap it in the soil and thus making the soil rich in nitrogen and maintains the soil fertility. This is a natural method of increasing soil fertility. Farmers grow these crops in crop rotation in between main crops to enrich the soil with nitrogen.
28. Pick out the anthropogenic activity that is not a cause for soil erosion.
Correct Answer – E. Afforestation
Explanation: The wearing away of the fertile top layer of soil is termed soil erosion. Although there are various natural factors like wind, water, and climate etc. that causes soil erosion; certain activities by the humans like agriculture related over-cropping, over-manuring, over-grazing and deforestation for the need of urbanization leads to soil erosion. Afforestation or planting of trees in areas that are devoid of trees is a major human activity that helps in soil conservation. This is done mainly to conserve the soil in the areas of afforestation as tree roots help to hold the topsoil firmly and thus preventing from erosion.
29. Which among the following schemes initiated by the Indian Government has the primary objective of using the available land and water efficiently in a sustainable manner to improve the farmer’s livelihood?
Correct Answer – B. WDC-PMKSY
Explanation: Watershed management is the collective process of implementing better land use and water use practices to maintain the ecological balance of natural resources that are part of the watershed. The Watershed Development Component-Prime Minister Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (WDC-PMKSY) is a major watershed management programme in India and has the following objectives: to harness, conserve, and develop natural resources that are degraded like soil, water, and vegetative cover in order to maintain natural ecological balance; to prevent soil erosion and regeneration of vegetation; increasing ground water level by rainwater harvesting and other methods, introduction of diversified agricultural practices.
30. The net addition of to the capital stock of an economy during a given period called _________.
C. Capital formation
E. None of the above
Correct Answer – C. Capital formation
- Production, consumption and capital formation are the important functions of an economy.
- The capital formation is defined as the net addition of to the capital stock of an economy during a given period.
- It is also called as the investment.
- The part of production which is not consumed during a year is an investment.
31. Fertigation in an irrigation system is to
A. Increase the nutrient absorption for plants.
B. Increase of soil erosion.
C. Increase risk of soil borne disease.
D. Increase leaching of chemicals in the water supply.
E. Increase water consumption.
Correct Answer – A. Increase the nutrient absorption for plants.
Explanation: Fertigation is the injection of fertilizers, soil amendments, and other water-soluble products into an irrigation system. The benefits of fertigation methods over conventional or drop-fertilizing methods include: Increased nutrient absorption by plants, Reduction of use in fertilizer, chemicals, and water needed. The elements like nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium are used in fertigation. Reduction of soil erosion issues as the nutrients are pumped through the water drip system. Leaching is decreased often through methods used to employ fertigation.
32. Which of the following factors influences the infiltration process?
A. Flow supply and soil characteristics
E. None of the above
Correct Answer – A. Flow supply and soil characteristics
Explanation: Infiltration is the flow of water through the soil surface into a porous medium under gravitational action and pressure effects. The factors influence the infiltration are the soil type such as texture, structure, hydrodynamic characteristics which influence capillary forces and adsorption and the soil coverage. Soil humidity is an important factor for infiltration process. The infiltration regime evolves differently in time for dry or wet soils, soil compaction due to rain drop impact and other effects. The use of hard agricultural equipment can have consequences on the surface layer of soil.
33. Name the implement that is attached to the tractor along its hinge axis and is directly controlled by the tractor’s steering unit.
A. Mounted implements
B. Semi mounted implements
C. Trailed implements
D. Multipurpose implements
E. None of these
Correct Answer – B. Semi mounted implements
Explanation: Mounted implements are attached to the tractor and controlled directly by tractor steering unit. The implement is fully carried by tractor when out of work. Whereas semi mounted implements are attached to the tractor along hinge axis whose weight is partly supported by tractor and can be controlled by steering directly.
34. Olpad thresher is traditionally used in rural areas and that pulled by a pair of bullocks and in which crop mainly applied?
Correct Answer – C. Wheat
Explanation: Olpad thresher originated at small place Olpad in Gujarat state. Olpad thresher is mainly a wheat thresher and pulled by a pair of bullocks. It is very popular in Punjab. The thresher consists of around 5-7 corrugated discs that are mounted on three rods and these rods are joined by two parallel running steel belts with the help of a bearing. Since the thresher needs to operate in a circular manner and requires at least 8-10 cm space, about 15-20 discs spanning a diameter of 45 cm are arranged in a nonlinear pattern. This thresher operated in a circular manner and required 8-10 m. space. It can be moved up to complete threshing.
35. The diesel engine also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel is done which is injected into the combustion chamber and it’s compression ratio (CR) is _______.
A. 4 to 6 : 1
B. 8 to 14 : 2
C. 9 to 11 : 1
D. 14 to 22 : 1
E. 22 : 1 to 28 : 1
Correct Answer – D. 14 to 22 : 1
Explanation: The diesel engines that start on auto-ignition does not have spark plug. In such engines, after the compression stroke, the heat from compression raises the air temperature in the cylinder to a sufficient amount that is enough to ignite the diesel injected into the cylinder through injector. The CR usually ranges between 14 : 1 to 22 : 1. The appropriate CR ratio depends on the cylinder head design.
36. Olericulture is the branch of horticulture which deals with the study of:
A. Study of fruit crops
B. Cultivation of vegetables
C. Cultivation of flower crops
D. Cultivation of Spices
E. Cultivation of medicine and aromatic plants.
Correct Answer – B. Cultivation of vegetables
Explanation: Horticulture is a wide field which includes a great variety and diversity of crops. Pomology is the study of fruit crops. Olericulture is the study cultivation of vegetables. Floriculture is the study of cultivation of flower crops. Plantation crops is the study of cultivation of coconut, arecanut, rubber, coffee, tea, etc. Spices crops is the study of cultivation of cardamom, pepper, nutmeg etc. Medicinal and aromatic crops is the study cultivation of medicinal and aromatic crops.
37. Which of the following is not the promoters of the plant hormones?
D. Abscisic acid
E. None of the Above
Correct Answer – D. Abscisic acid
Explanation: The quantitative increase in plant body such as increase in the length of stem and root, the number of leaves etc., is referred to as plant growth. It is an organic compound synthesized in one part of plant and translocated to other parts, wherein very low concentration causes a physiological response. The plant hormones are identified as promoters (auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins), inhibitors (abscisic acid and ethylene) and other hypothetical growth substances (Florigen, death hormone, etc.).
38. Which of the following is the feed supplements?
B. Zinc bacitracin
D. Iodinated casein
Correct Answer – E. Aromin
Explanation: Feed supplements are the compounds which has a nutritional value to compensate the deficiency. Some of the commonly used feed supplements are Vitablend, Arovit, Minimix, Milk min, Nutrimilk, Aromin etc. Apart from feed supplements, there are food additives which are non-nutritive substance to increase feed efficiency. Terramycin, Zinc bacitracin, Flavomycin, Iodinated casein come under feed additives.
39. Incinerators are constructed in a desired manner in the poultry Management for
A. Disposal of dead poultry that prevents the spread of diseases.
B. Converting organic matter, such as dry poultry waste or dead chickens, into a more uniform and relatively odourless substance called humus or compost.
C. Providing temperature for the poultry farming.
D. Providing food for the poultry farming.
E. None of the above
Correct Answer – A. Disposal of dead poultry that prevents the spread of diseases.
Explanation: Incinerators shall be constructed in a manner and design capable of providing a method of disposal of dead poultry that prevents the spread of diseases. Composting converts organic matter, such as dry poultry waste or dead chickens, into a more uniform and relatively odourless substance called humus or compost.
40. Intensive system of poultry production system has different types which of the following is one among them?
A. Backyard Extensive Systems
B. Free-Range Extensive Systems
C. Deep litter system
D. Extensive system
E. None of the above
Correct Answer – C. Deep litter system
Explanation: Family poultry are kept under a wide range of conditions, which can be classified into one of four broad production systems. Free-range extensive, backyard extensive, semi-intensive and intensive. Intensive Systems are used for medium to large-scale commercial purposes and used in households. Deep Litter system is one among the intensive system here the birds are fully confined either in houses or cages but can move around freely. There are other types of intensive systems such as slatted floor system and battery cage system.
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