Important Agriculture One Liner of Maize,Bajra and Sorghum- 73

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Agriculture One Liner

Maize: Zea maize

• Maize is a non tiller plant.(Agriculture One Liner)

• Maize is usually a cross-pollinated crop.

• In maize yellow color due to presence of Cryptoxanthin

• Maize possesses the highest yield potential among the cereals.

• Maize protein is called zein’ and is deficient in tryptophan and lysine.

• Maize required optimum temp. for germination is 18.3 °C.

• Maize is sensitive to water logging.(Agriculture One Liner)

• Water requirement for the maize crop is 500-800mm.

Seminal roots present in maize to nourished seedling plants.

• Maize is monoecious plant having two different types of inflorescences.

• If maize is sowing in east -west direction it helps to augment the grain productivity due to greater availability of light.

• In the persons which wholly depended on maize lead to a disease called ‘pellagra’ due to low content of vitamin B complex, niacin and tryptophan in maize.(Agriculture One Liner)

• The terminal male flower clusters are called tassel, it is a branched panicle bearing of pollen or staminate inflorescence.

• The style is a very long silky filament, bears the female hairy cluster of which is known as “silk”.

• On maize plant, first appearance is Tassels (male flower).(Agriculture One Liner)

• The female pistillate inflorescence also called the ear or cob, comes out from a node generally half way on the stem.

• Idea of hybrid maize was first conceived by E.M. East and G.H. Shull in 1910 by single cross technique among the inbred lines.

• An inbred line is a ‘pure line‘ developed by self pollination and selection until apparently homozygous plants are obtained. 

• D.F. Jones (1920) proposed the use of Double cross technique for hybrid seed production.

• At present double cross techniques are mostly used in India.(Agriculture One Liner)

• First time in India (1961), four double cross hybrids were released: Ganga-1, Ganga-101, Deccan, and Ranjeet.

• Mahi Kanchan and Mahi Dhavan varieties of maize originating from Rajasthan.

• Top cross varieties Ganga-2 and Hi -Starch.

• A top cross hybrid is obtained by combing an inbred line and an open -pollinated variety.

• In 1967, six composites were released: Vikram, Vijay, Amber, Kisan, Jawahar & Sona.

• In 1971, Lysine rich Opaque -2 composites Protina (4% lysine), Shakti and Rattan were released.(Agriculture One Liner)

Synthetic variety Means their advanced generations of a multiple hybrid increased by open -pollination e.g. Amber

• New varieties of quality protein maize (QPM) have released by using Opaque -2 gene e.g. Shaktiman-1, Shaktiman-2 and HQPM-1.

• Optimum plant population in Kharif is 65,000-70,000 plants/ha.

•Seed rate 15-20 kg seeds/ha is recommended for kharif crop.

25 kg/ha for hybrid maize.(Agriculture One Liner)

40-50 kg/ha is recommended for fodder purpose

Critical stages for water: For moisture and nutrients point of view period between tasseling and silking stage is critical.

 • Suitable temperature for growing of Zea mays 32°C.

• Commonly herbicide used in maize is Simazine (0.5-1.0 kg)

• Hybrid varieties of maize Sangum/Ganga safed

• Protein content of maize 10%(Agriculture One Liner)

• Rabi maize is extensively grown in Bihar

White bud: In maize due to deficiency of zinc the apical leaves become white.

Bajra: Pcnnisettan americaumn.

• Bajra is known by different names like cattail millet, candle millet, dark millet, spiked millet etc.

Highest quantity of minerals (2.7%) are found in bajra among the cereals.

Rajasthan having first position both in area and production(Agriculture One Liner)

• In pearl millet the roots coming out from the second and third nodes provide support to the plant and are called prop or brace roots.

Highest drought tolerant crop among cereals & millets.

• Among the cereals, the water requirement for pearl millet is lowest (250mm).

• In pearl millet the inflorescence is predominantly protogynous and therefore stigmas are seen a few days before the appearance of anthers which greatly facilitate natural cross-pollination.

Tift 23 -Al was the first male sterile line of pearl millet.(Agriculture One Liner)

• First hybrid: HB-1 released in 1965 from Ludhiana. Its cross of Tift 23-A (male sterile) x Bil 3B.

Napier grass: For development of forage variety PUSS napier-1; the first inter -specific hybridization was carried out in 1947 between Pennisetum purpureum x Pennisetum glaucum.

sorghum: sorghum bicolor.

• First hybrid of sorghum CSH-1(Agriculture One Liner)

• Jowar is native of Africa

Witch weed (Striga spp.) a root parasite weed, which is a major problem in sorghum production.

• Seed rate of Jowar 10-12 kg/ha

• Seed rate for fodder purpose 40-50 kg/ha.

• The best high yield variety of Rabi Jowar is M35-1(Agriculture One Liner)

• Drought and salinity tolerant variety of sorghum is CSH-9

• Sorghum is considered as camel crop because of Resistance to drought.

• Most important male sterile variety Combine kafir-60.

• Sorghum crop for fodder purpose should be used after 50% flowering because sorghum leaves at knee stage possess a high amount of hydrocyanic acid (HC1V) or dhurrin/prussic acid which is poisonous to the animals. 

• Sorghum is called the camel of desert because it produces good yields under high temperature and low soil moisture.(Agriculture One Liner)

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