Horticulture: Horticulture may be defined as a part of agricultural science, which deals with the production, utilization, and improvement of fruits, vegetables, flowers, ornamentals, plantation crops, medicinal and aromatic plants etc.
Fruits: The sweet and fleshy product of a tree or other plant that contains seed and can be eaten as food.(Ripened ovary)
Vegetable: a usually herbaceous plant (such as the cabbage, bean, or potato) grown for an edible part that is usually eaten as part of a meal after cooking.
Pomology: Pomology is study or cultivation of fruit crops
Olericulture: Olericulture literally means potherb cultivation, cultivation of vegetable crops.
Floriculture: Floriculture means study of flower crops
Plantation crops: It is branch of horticulture science which deals with cultivation of crops whose produce is used only after processing
Spices and condiments: It is branch of horticulture science which deals with cultivation of crops whose produce is utilized mainly for seasoning and flavouring the food items.
Medicinal plants: It is branch of horticulture science which deals with cultivation of medicinal crops that provides drugs.
Aromatic plants: It is branch of horticulture science which deals with cultivation of crops which yield aromatic oils.
Temperate Fruits: This class of fruits are grown successfully in cold regions where temperature falls below freezing point during winters. Apple, pear, walnut
Sub tropical crops: Trees which grow in areas in which summer are hot and dry and winter are less mild. Citrus, Guava, Pomegranate
Tropical crops: Trees which grow in areas in which summer are hot and humid with mild winter. Fruits :Banana, Sapota, Mango
Deciduous trees: Plants which shed their leaves during the particular season of the year.
Evergreen trees: Plants which remain green throughout the year.
Climacteric fruits: Fruits which required separate ripening period are known as climacteric fruit. Fruits which can ripe even after harvesting. Respiration rate and ethylene production in climacteric fruits increase during ripening. Eg Mango, banana
Non-climacteric fruits: Fruits which are already ripened at time of harvesting are known as non-climacteric fruits. Fruits which cannot ripe after harvesting. Respiration rate and ethylene production of non-climacteric fruits does not increase during ripening. Eg Grape, Ber
Curing: Drying process follow in vegetables for strengthening of the skin of produce so as to resist the micro-organisms.
Hermaphrodite flower: Flowers having both male & female sex organ
Dioecious plant: Plants have flowers of any one sex only. Male and Female flowers born on separate plants.
Monoecious: Separate flowers of a single sex at different places on same plant. Male and female flowers born separately on same plant.
Cool season vegetables (cole crops): These are the vegetables of which roots, stems, leaves, bud or immature flowers etc. Other than fruit are eaten & grown in cool season.
Warm season vegetables: The vegetables of which immature fruits are consumed are counted under warm season vegetables.
Plant propagation: Plant propagation refers to the multiplication of an individual plant or group of plants, which have specific value to mankind.
Seed: Seed is the result of fusion of male and female gametes. Plants that are produced from seeds are called seedlings.
Bulb: A bulb is a specialized underground organ that consists predominantly of fleshy leaf scales growing on a stem tissue
Corm: The corm is a modified stem. Food is stored in this compact stem, which has nodes and very short internodes and is wrapped up in dry, scaly leaves.
Separation: Separation is a method of propagation in which underground structures of plants are divided not by cutting but by breaking along natural lines between segments.
Division: It is a method of propagation of plants using cut section of a particular part like rhizome, tuber and tuberous root etc.
Rhizome: A rhizome is a specialized stem structure in which the main axis of the plant grows horizontally just below or on the surface of the ground.
Stolon: It is a term used to describe various types of horizontally growing stems that produce adventious roots when come in contact with the soil.
Runner: A runner is a specialized stem that develops from the axil of a leaf at the crown of a plant, grows horizontally along the ground and forms a new plant at one of the nodes.
Tuber: A tuber is specialized swollen underground stem which possesses eyes in regular order over the surface.
Offsets: It is a short thickened horizontal branch growing out of the crown ending at the apex with a tuft of leaves and a cluster of leaves below.
Suckers: It is a lateral branch developing from the underground parts of the stem or roots.
Cutting: A cutting is a part of a plant that will produce roots when put in soil media and eventually produce a new plant quite true to the parent plant.
Layering: Layering is propagation method of developing of roots on a stem while it is still attached to the parent plant.
Grafting: Grafting is an art of joining parts of two independent plants in such a manner that they unite and grow together into single independent plant.
Rootstock: It is the part of graft combination which is to become the lower portion or the root system is the rootstock
Scion: The part of graft combination which is to become the upper portion or the shoot system or top of the new plant is termed the scion.
Budding: Budding is also a method of grafting wherein only one bud with a piece of bark and with or without wood is used as the scion material.
Micro propagation: (tissue culture or invitro culture) refers to the multiplication of plants, in aseptic condition and in artificial growth medium from plant parts like meristem tip, callus, embryos, anthers, axillary buds etc.
Apomixes: The phenomenon in which an asexual reproductive process occurs in place of the normal sexual reproductive process of reduction, division and fertilization is known as apomixis.
Recurrent apomixis: In this the embryo develops from the diploid egg cell (diploid parthenogenesis) or from some other diploid cells of the embryo sac, without fertilization (diploid apogamy).
Non-recurrent apomixis: In this type, the embryo develops directly, either from the haploid egg cell (haploid parthenogenesis) or some other haploid cells of the embryo sac (haploid apogamy).
Adventitious apomixis (Adventitious embryony or nucellar embryony): In this type of apomixis the embryo does not develop from the cells of the embryo sac, but develops from any diploid sporophytic cell, eg.,cells of the nucellus (usually), integument etc.
Vegetative apomixis (Bulbils): In this case the flowers in an inflorescence are replaced by bulbils or vegetative buds, which often sprout into new plants while they are still on the mother plant.
Polyembryony: This is a type of apomixis. The phenomenon in which two or more embryos present within a single seed is called polyembryony. Ex. Mango, Citrus
Training: When a plant is tied, fastened, staked or supported over a trellis or pergola in the centre (particular) or in fashion or some of its parts are cut off with a view of giving the plant a better frame work, the operation is called is training.
Pruning: Pruning can be defined as an art of removing scientifically, certain portion of the plant with a view to divert the sap flow towards the fruiting area present on the plant and by that way to produce more quantity and superior quality of fruits.
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