Introduction to Forest in India

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Forest in India

Introduction to Forest in India

Total geographical area of India is 32, 80,500 sq. km (328.8M ha)

Total forest area 7, 50,500.00 sq. km (75.06 M ha)

Agricultural area is about 46.4%

The second National Forest Policy was enunciated (decided) in 1952 as per which 33.33% of land should be under forest for proper ecological balance. In hills 60% area should be covered under tree cover. During last tow decades 2 million ha forest was diverted for nonforest purpose, Agro-industry, power and irrigation projects, housing etc. Government has enacted the Forest Conservation Act. 1980 to ensure that no reserve forest can be diverted to any other type of forest and that no forest and that no forest land can be used for any non forest purpose.

Out of total area under forest, 45.6 million ha (60%) area is in use and another 14.8 million
ha (20%) area potentially exploited and remaining unexploited area as on Himalayan states,
North Eastern regions and Andaman Nicobar islands.

Sources of energy consumption in India are:

Coal, 16.5%

Oil 10.0%

Electricity 15.7%

wood 37.6%

Cowdung 8.7%

Vegetation waste 11.5%


The wood is derived from the Latin word “Eairs” means “outside’ Therefore forests are areas
covering practically all uncultivated or untended lands covered with rather tall and dense
tree growth.

Forestry and Its Branches

The word “Forest” is derived from Latin word ‘foris’ means meaning outside the village boundary or away from inhabited land. It is a large tract covered with trees and under growth some-times mixed with pasture. Generally, forest is referred to an area occupied by different kinds of trees shrubs, herbs, and grasses and maintained as such. In a general sense, forest is a large uncultivated tract of land covered with trees and Underwood, woody ground and rude pasture a preserve for big game. Technically, forest is an area set aside for he production of timber and other forest produce, or maintained under woody vegetation for certain indirect benefts which it provides, e.g. climatic or protective (Anon. 1966 ).

Ecologically, it is defned as a plant community, predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, usually with a closed canopy. Legally, forest is an area of land proclaimed to be a forest under a forest law.

FAO classifes all such lands into forest.
The forests made / composed / constituted / dominated from almost entirely one single species, to the minimum extent of 50 per cent are called Pure Forest Constitute. From the above defnition, it is clear that the forest has fve components, namely;
1. It is an uncultivated land area
2. The land area should be occupied by different kinds of natural vegetation
essentially by trees or it is proposed to establish trees and other forms of vegetation
3. The trees should form a closed or a partially closed canopy
4. The trees and other forms of vegetation should be managed for obtaining forest
produce and / or benefts and
5. It should provide shelter to wildlife, birds-and other fauna. (Animals)

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