Jute and Potato One Liner For Competitive exam

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Jute

Jute (Corchorus olitorius): F. Tilliaccae

  • Most important fiber crop in India.
  • India’s first rank in both area and production of jute in world.
  • In India West Bengal has first position both in area and production.
  • C. olitorius known as meth-pat/tossa. Grown on well drained high lands only.
  • C. capsularis known white jute/tita, due to presence of glycoside ‘Corcharin’.
  • Covers 70% area of total jute cultivation.
  • Weight of one bale of jute is: 180 kg 1
  • Seed rate of jute: 6-8 kg/ha

Harvesting:

• Optimum time of harvesting is about 90 DAS, but this stage the grain yield low.

• To obtain quality fiber and good yield jute is harvest at small pod stage i.e. 135-140 DAS.

Ribboning:

• This practice is very common in China and Taiwan, but not popular in India

• It consists of peeled out of raw bark from the green plant, immediately after harvest and bundles of the ribbons thus obtained are retied.

Retting:

• It is a microbial process in which aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi loosen the fiber by decomposing & dissolving the pectin, hemicelluloses and other cementing agents.

• It completes within 8-30 days.

• Slow moving clear water best for good retting.

• Optimum temperature required for retting is about 34°C.

Potato (Solanum tuberosum)

King of vegetable. Cash crop (high marketable value per unit area).

Rich source of starch i.e. farina and vitamin especially B1

Origin: Peru (South America)

True potato seed (TPS):

• Developed by Ramanujan

100-150 g seeds/ha in nursery is sufficient.

Area and distribution:

Area: Uttar Pradesh > West Bengal > Bihar

Production: Same trend as area

• Potato occupies largest area under any single vegetable in the World.

Botany: Perennial plant but as a crop treated as an annual plant.

Propagation by tubers i.e. an enlarged underground stem produced on the end of a stolon and not on the root properly.

C 3 , short day plant from tuberization point of view while flowering point of view long day plant.

Fruit type is berry and potato requires temperature for satisfied tuber growth 17-19 °C. pH requirement about 5.0-6.5, as acidic condition reduces scab disease incidence.

Varieties:

a. Early maturity: Takes only 75 days

• Kufri chandramukhi

• K. ashoka (extra early)

• K. alankar, K. lavkar and K. navtal

b. Medium duration

• K. sheetman (Frost resistant variety)

• K. chamatkar

• K. badshah

c. Late maturity:

• K. deva

• K. sinduri

d. Suitable for processing:

• K. chipsona-1

• K. chipsona-2

Seed sowing:

• 25 g cut (piece) of tuber with 3-5 buds/eyes @ 15-20 q/ha

• As getting high yield @ 20-25 q/ha for 15g/seed

Spacing: 60 x 20cm

Seed plot technique (SPT):

• Developed by Pushkarnath in 1967

• It is a technique of multiplication of disease free (Virus free) seed in Northern plains of Country.

Disorders:

a. Black heart: Due to lack of O2 in stored potato the internal tissues break down and become black. Avoid storage temperature above 35 °C and poor ventilation.

b. Rollo heart: due to excessive use of N -fertilizer, an irregular cavity in the centre of tubers develops.

c. Chilling injury: Due to prolonged storage of tubers at temperature of about 0°C.

• Dormancy breaker: May be used 1% Thiourea with I ppm of GA3 for 10 minutes.

Fertilizer KCL not used in solanaceae crops because chloride has adverse effect on dry matter and starch content of potato.

• The stolen formation (20-50 DAP) and tuber elongation (50-80 DAP) are most critical stages of irrigation.

• Insect of potato which infect the tubers in field as well as storage is : Potato tuber moth (Gnorimoschema operculella)

• Potato leaf roll viruses is transmitted by: Aphids(Myzus persicae).

• Wart disease of potato is due to: Fungus (Synchitrium endobioticum)

Domestic quarantine is adapted (transport of planting materials i.e. tubers from Darjeeling area to other parts of the country is restricted due to wart disease.

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