Jute (Corchorus olitorius): F. Tilliaccae
- Most important fiber crop in India.
- India’s first rank in both area and production of jute in world.
- In India West Bengal has first position both in area and production.
- C. olitorius known as meth-pat/tossa. Grown on well drained high lands only.
- C. capsularis known white jute/tita, due to presence of glycoside ‘Corcharin’.
- Covers 70% area of total jute cultivation.
- Weight of one bale of jute is: 180 kg 1
- Seed rate of jute: 6-8 kg/ha
• Optimum time of harvesting is about 90 DAS, but this stage the grain yield low.
• To obtain quality fiber and good yield jute is harvest at small pod stage i.e. 135-140 DAS.
• This practice is very common in China and Taiwan, but not popular in India
• It consists of peeled out of raw bark from the green plant, immediately after harvest and bundles of the ribbons thus obtained are retied.
• It is a microbial process in which aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi loosen the fiber by decomposing & dissolving the pectin, hemicelluloses and other cementing agents.
• It completes within 8-30 days.
• Slow moving clear water best for good retting.
• Optimum temperature required for retting is about 34°C.
Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
King of vegetable. Cash crop (high marketable value per unit area).
Rich source of starch i.e. farina and vitamin especially B1
Origin: Peru (South America)
True potato seed (TPS):
• Developed by Ramanujan
• 100-150 g seeds/ha in nursery is sufficient.
Area and distribution:
• Area: Uttar Pradesh > West Bengal > Bihar
• Production: Same trend as area
• Potato occupies largest area under any single vegetable in the World.
Botany: Perennial plant but as a crop treated as an annual plant.
Propagation by tubers i.e. an enlarged underground stem produced on the end of a stolon and not on the root properly.
C 3 , short day plant from tuberization point of view while flowering point of view long day plant.
Fruit type is berry and potato requires temperature for satisfied tuber growth 17-19 °C. pH requirement about 5.0-6.5, as acidic condition reduces scab disease incidence.
a. Early maturity: Takes only 75 days
• Kufri chandramukhi
• K. ashoka (extra early)
• K. alankar, K. lavkar and K. navtal
b. Medium duration
• K. sheetman (Frost resistant variety)
• K. chamatkar
• K. badshah
c. Late maturity:
• K. deva
• K. sinduri
d. Suitable for processing:
• K. chipsona-1
• K. chipsona-2
• 25 g cut (piece) of tuber with 3-5 buds/eyes @ 15-20 q/ha
• As getting high yield @ 20-25 q/ha for 15g/seed
• Spacing: 60 x 20cm
Seed plot technique (SPT):
• Developed by Pushkarnath in 1967
• It is a technique of multiplication of disease free (Virus free) seed in Northern plains of Country.
a. Black heart: Due to lack of O2 in stored potato the internal tissues break down and become black. Avoid storage temperature above 35 °C and poor ventilation.
b. Rollo heart: due to excessive use of N -fertilizer, an irregular cavity in the centre of tubers develops.
c. Chilling injury: Due to prolonged storage of tubers at temperature of about 0°C.
• Dormancy breaker: May be used 1% Thiourea with I ppm of GA3 for 10 minutes.
• Fertilizer KCL not used in solanaceae crops because chloride has adverse effect on dry matter and starch content of potato.
• The stolen formation (20-50 DAP) and tuber elongation (50-80 DAP) are most critical stages of irrigation.
• Insect of potato which infect the tubers in field as well as storage is : Potato tuber moth (Gnorimoschema operculella)
• Potato leaf roll viruses is transmitted by: Aphids(Myzus persicae).
• Wart disease of potato is due to: Fungus (Synchitrium endobioticum)
• Domestic quarantine is adapted (transport of planting materials i.e. tubers from Darjeeling area to other parts of the country is restricted due to wart disease.
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