Layout of Orchard Planting

The orchard is laid out as per following system of planting

1. Square system

It is the most easy and popular method of planting fruit plants. In this system row to row and plant to plant distances are kept similar. The plants are planted exactly at right angle at each.

Thus, every four plants make one square. Intercultural operations can be done in both directions as the distances between trees and rows are similar. Adequate space is there to for inter-cultivation of remunerative crops like vegetables.(Orchard Planting)

2. Rectangular system

The field is laid out into rectangular shape plot keeping more space between row and row. The
plant to plant distance is kept comparatively less. Thus, rectangular system accommodates
more plants in rows. Inter-cultural operations can be carried out through both ways. The plants get proper space and sunlight for their growth and development.(Orchard Planting)

3. Hexagonal system

This system accommodates 15 % more plants than square system. It allows three directional cultivation in the orchard. In this system, the orchard is laid out similar to rectangular system.
The diagonals of rectangles are intersected to form equilateral triangles. The trees are planted at the vertex of each equilateral triangle. Thus, six trees form hexagon with the seventh tree in
the centre. Hence, this system is also called as “septule’ as it accommodates seventh tree in the centre.

The hexagonal system is considered as a grid of contiguous equilateral triangle in which
the length of each arm of the triangle is desired tree to tree distance. This is very intense
method of planting and hence requires fertile land. In the suburb of cities where land is
costly, this system is worth adoption. However, the laying out of system is hard and
cumbersome.(Orchard Planting)

4. Quincunx system

This system is similar to square system except one additional plant is planted in the
centre of each square . The plants that are planted in the centre of each square along
with tall growing plants at the corners of squares are termed as ‘filler’ plants. These plants are
planted with a view to generate income when the main orchard plant is under non-bearing
stage.

Filler plants also ensure proper utilization of otherwise left space between rows of
trees. These plants are usually short-statured and early bearing. When main plants of the
orchard resume their proper shape, the filler plants are uprooted. Guava, Kinnow, Phalsa,
Plum, Peaches, Papaya etc. are important filler plants.(Orchard Planting)

5. Contour system

It is adopted in hilly areas for planting fruit plants where land is undulated and soils erosion is a great threat. Under such circumstances, contour terrace is developed by scratching and levelling the hill-slope. The width of contour terrace varies according to the slope of the hill. At stiff hill slope, the width is kept narrower.(Orchard Planting)