Morphology of mushroom


Mushrooms can be defined as “a macro-fungus with distinctive fruiting bodies, epigeous or hypogeous, large enough to be seen with naked eyes and picked up by the hands”. The mushroom fruiting body may be umbrella like or of various other shapes, size and colour. Commonly it consists of a cap or pileus and a stalk or stipe but others have additional structures like veil or annulus, a cup or volva. Cap or pileus is the expanded portion of the carpophore (fruit body) which may be thick, fleshy, membranous or corky. On the underside of the pileus, gills are situated. These gills bear spores on their surface and exhibit a change in colour corresponding to that of the spores. The attachment of the gills to the stipe helps in the identification of the mushroom. On the basis of the attachment, gills are of following types:
Free gill: when the gills do not touch the stipe or only do so by a fine line.
Adnate gill: when gills are attached directly to the stem forming nearly a right angle with the stem/stipe.
Decurrent gill: when the gills extend down the stem to a greater or lesser degree.
Adnexed gill: if the attachment of the gills is only by a part of the stem to a greater or lesser degree.
Sinuate gill: when gills are near the stalk in a deep notch.

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