Oats Cereal (Avena sativa)
Family : Gramineae
Origin : Asia minor
Introduction of Oats Cereal cultivation
Oats Cereal crops are a most important crop of all as they form the staple food for mankind. Earlier, cereal crops meant only the cultivation of wheat and rice. Oats as a cereal crop had been cultivated for thousands of years, but the craze for these grains is recent.
The cultivation of oats Cereal was done about 4000 years ago. Such fact is present in recent studies. Oats cultivation has been done for a long time. These days’ people have increased consumptions of oats and it has become one of the most important cereal grains to be cultivated. Oats has numerous health benefits and has positive effects on the body. Therefore, oats have taken its place as an important breakfast cereal. Nowadays, oats are made into many processed foods like oats cookies, oats bars, oats flour and many more food items.
Climatic for Oats Cereal cultivation
Oats Ceareals can be best cultivated in temperate and sub-tropical regions. it requires a mild and cool climate to grow and produce seeds. The ideal temperature for growing oats is 20-30 degree Celsius. Higher temperatures exceeding 35 degree Celsius might not be good for the growth and development of the plants and the seeds. an annual rainfall of 80-110mm is sufficient for the cultivation of oats. Oats can be successfully grown in areas having a higher altitude. Oats are less tolerant of intense summer heat. On the other hand, it can tolerate rain as compared to other crops.
Soil for Oats Cereal cultivation
It grows best on well drained, fertile loamy soils.
Nutrition Management for Oats Cereal cultivation
Oat plants require fertilizers at a larger amount than other crops. Nitrogen fertilizers are required in larger amounts. The nitrogen requirement can be fulfilled by providing urea or anhydrous ammonia. Along with that appropriate amounts of potash and phosphorus also have to be applied in the field. The oats plant depletes the macronutrients in large amounts. Nitrogen-fixing legume plants can also be grown with oats so that the requirement of nitrogen is fulfilled. Along with the fertilizers, appropriate quantities of well-decomposed farmyard manure must be mixed with the topsoil at the time of land preparation.
Irrigation for Oats Cereal cultivation
Oats are mainly cultivated as a rainfed crop. In such method, much irrigation is not needed. The rainwater is sufficient for irrigation of the oat plants. In case the rainfall is excessive, excess water must be drained out of the field. Also, in case of uneven rainfall, irrigation must be provided. There are many varieties, though, which are cultivated as an irrigated crop. In irrigated crop, 3-4 irrigations are required in a month. In case of dry and hot weather, the number of irrigations must increase. Though the oats crops are somewhat drought resistant, such conditions may be avoided to increase the yield for oats. The soil must be checked for moisture and water must be provided at the time of low moisture content in the soil.
Variety of Oats Cereal cultivation
Np-1, NP-2, Brunker-10, Weston-11
Intercultural for Oats Cereal cultivation
Weeds cause not much of a problem in oats cultivation. 2-3 hoeings are sufficient for weed problems in the crop. The weeds must be removed as and when required. Thinning must be done as soon as the plants start to grow to retain the healthy plants and eliminate the unsuitable ones. Intercropping with leguminous crops will help add extra income and increase fertility and nutrient content of the soil. For weed removal, manual method or pesticides can be used.
Diseases And Pest of Oats Cereal cultivation
The most common diseases and pest of oats are as follows:
- Root rot
- Crown rust
- Red leaf
- Leaf blotch
- Black Stem
- Seedling Blight
There are many varieties of oats available which are resistant to most of the diseases and pests. They can be grown to effectively reduce the incidence of these attacks. For the rest of the diseases, appropriate chemicals or natural methods can be applied.
Harvesting for Oats Cereal
The oats plants can mature within 120-160 days. The maturity date varies for a different variety. The harvesting is done when the plants have started to dry out and the grains have become mature. Crops are usually harvested in the early time of April. Late harvesting must be avoided. For fodder, two cuttings are required after every 40 days.
Yield of Oats Cereal
Oats are cultivated for green fodder, seeds and dry matter. The yield may vary for different varieties. The grain yield can be 18-20 quintals per hectare. The straw yield can be of 25-30 quintals per hectare. If oats are cultivated as a fodder crop, the fodder yield is 200-300 quintals per hectare and the grain yield is 4-5 quintals per hectare.