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Pea cultivation

Pea cultivation

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Pea cultivation

Peas
Pisum sativum L.
Fabaceae

CLIMATE :
The pea crop grows best in areas having coolgrowing season of at least five months’ duration. These conditions are met with in the plains of Punjab, Western Uttar Pradesh, parts of Rajasthan, Delhi and in the hills of Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradedsh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. In other pea growing areas, as the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andra Pradesh, Eastern Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, the growing season is comparatively short and the winter mild. As such, just as in the case of other winter crops like wheat, the yields of peas in these two zones are significantly different, being higher in the northern parts. Although pea is not susceptible to cold, yet severe frost injures considerably the freshly opened flowers and the young developing pods.

SOIL :
Peas can be grown on a variety of soils – light sandy to heavy clays. Light soils should preferably be
used for growing early crops for vegetable purposes but for the harvest of dry peas for which main season varieties are grown, heavier types of soils such as silt loams and dry loams are prefered. Thus best crops are grown on deep loamy soils of the Indo-Gangetic alluvial region. Heavy clay soils are not used. Soils able to retain sufficient moisture to carry the crop to the stage of maturity with the minimum number of irrigations are ideal because frequent irrigations often tend to increase vegetative growth at the expense of pod formation. The plant thrives also under alkaline conditions but does not do well if the pH falls below 5.5. 

Pea cultivation

Recommended Varieties

The following varieties (listed in order of maturity) have wrinkled seeds and are resistant to fusarium wilt unless otherwise indicated.

Early

Daybreak (54 days to harvest; 20 to 24 inches tall, good for freezing)

Spring (57 days; 22 inches tall; dark green freezer peas)

Main Season

Sparkle (60 days to harvest; 18 inches tall; good for freezing)

Little Marvel (63 days; 18 inches tall; holds on the vine well)

Green Arrow (68 days; 28 inches tall; pods in pairs; resistant to fusarium and powdery mildew)

Wando (70 days; 24-30 inches; withstands some heat; best variety for late spring planting)

Sugar

Snowbird (58 days; 18 inches tall; double or triple pods in clusters)

Dwarf Gray Sugar (65 days; 24 to 30 inches)

Snowflake (72 days; 22 inches to harvest; high yield)

Season
Planting is done from February – March and October – November. 

Seed rate 

100 kg of seeds is required for a hectare.

Seed treatment
Treat the seeds with Trichoderma 4 g/kg or Thiram or Captan at 2 g/kg of seed to avoid seed borne diseases. Treat the seeds with Rhizobium culture at the rate of 2 kg and apply 2 kg Phosphobacterium as soil application just before sowing.

Preparation of field 
Prepare the land to fine tilth.

Sowing 
Sow the seeds at 45 x 10 cm in line

Pea cultivation

Irrigation 
Irrigation is done immediately after sowing and life irrigation is given on 3rd day after sowing. Thereafter irrigation is done once in a week. During snow fall irrigation is necessarily given to plants.

Application of fertilizers 
Apply FYM at 20 t/ha and 60 kg N, 80 kg P and 70 kg K/ha as basal and 60 kg N/ha on 30 days after sowing.

After cultivation 
Weeding should be done 15 days after sowing. Subsequent weedings should be done as and when necessary. Stake the plants on 30th day of sowing.

Plant protection
Pests
Pod borer 
Spray Carbaryl 50 WP thrice at fortnightly intervals for controlling at the rate of 2 g/lit. Dust with carbaryl 10 D at the rate of 25 kg/ha.

Aphids
For controlling aphids spray Methyl demeton 25 EC or Dimethoate 30 EC or Phosphamidon 40 SL @ 1 ml/lit of water.

Diseases
Powdery mildew 
For controlling powdery mildew, spray Wettable sulphur 2 g/lit or dust Sulphur at 25 kg/ha or Dinocap 1 ml/lit or Tridemorph 0.5 ml/lit, three rounds at 15 days interval.

Harvest
Harvest can be done on 75 days after sowing. High temperature during harvest affects the quality of peas.

Yield
8 -12 t/ha of pods can be obtained.


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