The arrangement of the plants in different rows and columns in an area to utilize the natural resources efficiently is called crop geometry.
It is otherwise area occupied by a single plant Eg. Rice – 20 cm x 15 cm.
The different types of crop geometry
Random plant geometry
• Random plant geometry results due to broadcasting method of sowing and no equal space is maintained.
• Resources are either underutilized or over exploited.
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Square plant geometry
• The plants are sown at equal distances on either side. Mostly perennial crops, tree crops follow square method of cultivation.
• Ex. Coconut – 7.5 x 7.5 m; banana – 1.8 x 1.8 m. But, due to scientific invention, the square geometry concept is expanded to close spaced field crops like rice too.
Rectangular method of sowing:
There are rows and columns, the row spacing are wider than the spacing between plants. The different types exist in rectangular method are:
Solid row: Each row will have no proper spacing between the plants. This is followed only for annual crops which have tilling pattern. There is definite row arrangement but no column arrangement, Ex. Wheat.
Skip row: A row of planting is skipped and hence there is a reduction in population. This reduction is compensated by planting an intercrop; practiced in rain-fed or dry-land agriculture.
Triangular method of planting:
It is recommended for wide spaced crops like coconut, man etc. The number of plants per unit area is more in this system.
Quincunx or diamond pattern:
• The quincunx or diamond pattern of arranging row-planted crops is a modified form of the square pattern.
• It consists of a square that is formed by 4 closest plants with an additional plant at the center of these 4 plants.
• The 4 plants that form a square are the main crops while the crop at the center is called a filler crop.
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