Plant Pathology One Liner
● The order of agro-chemicals in seed treatment of crops is kept as : ‘FIR’—Fungicide (first), Insecticide (in middle) and Rhizobiumculture (in last); This is called the principles of FIR in seed treatment. Further, it has been supplemented with miticide, then, it is quoted as; FIMR—Fungicide, Insecticide, Miticide & Rhizobium. (Miticide/Rodenticide chemicals) can also be used as seed treatment.
● ICAR has made an agreement with M/s Cadila Pharmacuticles Ltd. for the production of Kalisena SD-for seed treatment and Kalisena SD Bio-formulations-for 6 dangerous soil-borne pathogens having wide host range; so that those may be sold in Africa, America and Asia.
● Scientist-Meyer in 1886, searched-out through his researches ‘mosaic’ disease in tobacco, caused by virus, for the first time and also through this virus, mosaic disease is spreadout in tomato, mungbean, soybean, potato, papaya, chilli etc.(Plant Pathology One Liner)
● ‘Kinetin-6 Furfurl-Amino-Lurine’ is a good and known cytokinin.
● In Ireland, in the year 1846, the late blight disease of potato caused a ‘Famine’ and in Sri Lanka in 1867, rust disease in coffee also created a serious threat.
● In the year 1943, ‘Bengal Famine’–came by brown leaf spot disease in rice, resulted into the crop damaged completely. Similarly, in 1918-19 in delta of Godavari and Krishna rivers, the rice crop was also damaged due to this disease, whereas in Uttar Pradesh, in 1938-39, famine came in sugarcane due to ‘red rot’ disease.
● Scientist E.J. Butler is called the ‘Father of Modern Plant Pathology’ in India, who widely studied the Indian fungus at IARI (Imperial-Pusa, Bihar) before 1910 and his written book ‘Fungi and Disease in Plants’ is most popular.(Plant Pathology One Liner)
● Amongst the Plant Pathologists, Dr. R.K. Tandon (Allahabad University), Dr. T.A. Sadashivan (Madras University), Dr. K.C. Mehta (Dr. Karam Chand Mehta—Spotless Man, Agra College, Agra), G.S. Kulkarni and V.V. Mundkur, are all recognised.
● Biotrops are such bios(lives), and always get their (own) food from the living tissues of host in nature, on which they complete their life cycle.
● ‘Neucrotrophos’—The pathogen, kills immediately to any organic/or entire plant of own host plant after attack, is called ‘Neucrotrophos’.
● The genome of most plant-viruses (plant disease creating/spreading virus) are made-up of Ribose-Nucleic Acid (RNA) molecule (or molecules), but in some virus groups, it is made-up of De-Oxy-Ribose Nucleic Acid (DNA) e.g. in Gobhi Mosaic Virus.(Plant Pathology One Liner)
● The common mosaic virus creates virus disease in Rajmah (Rajmesh). This virus is spread (transmission) through aphid species– Aphis craccivora.
● The mosaic disease of peas and lentil is cause by a virus-a group of ‘potivirus’. The species of aphids e.g. Acyrthosiphon pisum, Aphis craccivora, Aphis fabae, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae; are the important for transmission of this virus.
● ‘Leaf Crinkle’ disease of urdbean is spread by a virus also known as ‘Urd leaf crinkle virus’. Till date, the cause of this disease is not yet known by researches. However, it may be due to virus/aphids/& other insects.
● ‘Yellow Mosaic Virus’ disease (or Necrotic mosaic) in mungbean is caused a virus, that is left by sucking insect or white fly–‘Bemisia tobaci’. (Plant Pathology One Liner)
● The losses in pulse crops yields due to virus diseases may vary from 60 to 80% in general or even upto 100% crop failure, besides affecting seed quality. Such losses due to virus are recorded as;
(i) Yellow mosaic virus (Necrotic mosaic) in mungbean & urdbean–80 to 100% reduction in yield.
(ii) Leaf crinkle in urdbean– 60-62% loss due to virus.
(iii) Sterility mosaic in pigeonpea– 80% loss
(iv) Stunt (dwarfness) disease of gram– 5990% loss.
(v) Bean common Mosaic Virus disease– 35-98% loss.
● The structure of viruses is very simple, creating disease in plants. These are made-up of only nucleo-protein; and have no structure like cell. The nucleic acid part of virus is infectious/or chronic, and it is said to be the Genome of virus.
● Plant viruses are of 3 types–some virusesisometric or spheroidal, some rodtypes and others basiliform.(Plant Pathology One Liner)
The diameter of—
(i) Spheroidal Viruses—17 Nenometer (1neno-meter = 10–9 m) to 70 nenometer;
(ii) Baciliform Viruses—100 to 300 nenometer (length), and 50 to 95 nenometer (width).
(iii) Rod Type Viruses—46 to 215 nenometer (length) and 22 nenometer (width).
● Pigeonpea and some plants like—Xanthium strumarium, Bracharia ramosa; Cosmos bipinnatus and Eclipta alba are also affected due to virus transmission through white fly (Bemisia tobaci).
● In pulse crops, Gram–Heliothis armigera is a major insect, causing 20-30% yield loss, in general; and in serious attack, 80-90% crop may damage.
● ‘Wilt’ disease in gram is caused due to Fusarium oxysporum var. (spp)–Cicerifungus attack.
● Arhar (Pigeonpea)—‘Wilt’ is spread due ‘Fusarium udum’ fungus
● ‘Root-Knot’—Nematode disease in pulses like-pigeonpea, mung, urd, gram, lentil, pea, rajmash etc. is caused by meloidogyne spp. (nematode); which reduced nearly 15-20% yield.
Meaning in one Sentence
● Fungus (Mould)—The profuse fungal growth on surface of plant tissue or humid or decomposed matter.
● Apothecium—The growth structure of some askasy fungus like; open cup or tray shape, having strata/layer of hymenium in inner surface.
● Anticeptic—That medicine, which is so strong, kills the bacteria but not to damage to lives e.g. Dettol.
● Biotic-diseases—White rust, alternaria blight and stem rot are the biotic-diseases.
● Abiotic Stress—Drought, salinity and high temperature come in abiotic stress.
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