Polyploidy in relation to plant breeding

Polyploidy

A phenomenon known as polyploidy refers to when an organism develops or when all diploid cells have one or more chromosomes. There are situations when it includes several chromosomal sets. It has been discovered that polyploidy, which involves having more than two sets of chromosomes, is one of the heritable circumstances. Polyploidies have been discovered to be mostly typical in plants. Significant angiosperms and speciation have also been discovered to be two additional causes of polyploidy.

In order for hybrid plants to have double the number of chromosomes, polyploidy is essential. For allopolyploid, it is necessary. Additionally to plants, several species of fish and amphibians also exhibit polyploidy. For instance, some frogs, leeches, and salamanders fall within this category. Three haploid chromosomes make up the polyploid organism or cell; occasionally, there are more than three. It has been discovered that the homologous pairings are not necessary for the effective generation of gametes during meiosis; hybrid is often sterile. The plants replicate their chromosomes, which they receive from both parents, and meiosis can take place at this time. As a result of homology, every chromosome possesses a duplicate set.

By providing fertility to the previously infertile hybrid, polyploidies enable the development of a distinct species from their parent species. Polyploidy is the source of half of the angiosperm. For humans, a few of the species are crucial. Rarely is human polyploidy detected. Differentiated tissues including the placenta, heart muscles, bone marrow, and liver parenchyma contain polyploid cells. It has been discovered that polyploidy is employed to cure hybrids by employing this plant’s breeding techniques. It has been noted that polyploidy occurs mostly on plants and is uncommon in mammals.

Polyploidy in Plants

It has been discovered that polyploidy, or the presence of more than two copies of a gene in one cell, occurs in cells. Polyploidy can result from the genetic material or hybridization-induced random multiplication of a single plant. Domesticated crops frequently exhibit polyploidy. Chromosome non-disjunction during meiosis or mitosis results in polyploidy. The majority of polyploidy is seen in angiosperms, which are mostly found in plants. In polyploid plants, the chromosomes are doubled during the process.

Polyploidy existed at the time of examination. In both domesticated and wild plants, polyploidy is important. The utilisation of polyploidy in plant breeding and its assistance with plant growth are its two most encouraging benefits. In the process of breeding plants and enhancing crops, polyploid plays a key role.

Types of Polyploidy

When a creature’s cells have more than two sets of chromosomes, the phenomenon is referred to as polyploidy. Polyploid variants have been discovered to have existed in living things, and as a result, a distinction has been discovered. Tetraploids are a type of polyploid in which there are four sets of chromosomes. Hexaploids, which are the six groups that make up chromosomes, are. The three different kinds of polyploidy are allopolyploidy, autopolyploidy, and auto-allopolyploidy. It has been discovered that distinct variant chromosomes can be detected as a result of polyploidy.

Aneuploidy and Polyploidy

A condition of the chromosomes known as aneuploidy occurs when excess chromosomes and missing chromosomes are discovered in the cell. It has been discovered that the likelihood of aneuploidy increases as a woman ages at conception. Missing chromosomes or mismatched chromosomal sets can lead to aneuploidy. It has been discovered that aneuploidy may result from the lack of more than one pair of chromosomes.

One of the causes of polyploidy is having more than two sets of chromosomes. Aneuploidy has mostly been observed in humans, while polyploidy is mostly seen in plants. A haploid defect of chromosomes is detected for aneuploidy, while polyploidy creates a new set of chromosomes.

Polyploidy Breeding

Plants are the main species that exhibit polyploidy breeding, and it has been shown that these plants are capable of adapting. Polyploidy’s unique effect is that it has an impact on different species. Polyploidy has been an important factor in the evaluation of plants; by polyploidy breeding, a whole new species that does not share the characteristics of either of the parent plants can be created.

Polyploidy in Crop Improvement

Crop development and evaluation are extremely important. Numerous cultivated crops have been discovered thanks to polyploidy. The most common food in the world is said to be wheat. This grass variety is commonly farmed for the production of cereal-based foods. Wheat is one of the best plants with polyploidy, and it grows organically. Antimitotic chemicals, which aid in plant reproduction, are primarily responsible for intentionally inducing polyploidy in some cases.

The complete set of chromosomes is duplicated in polyploidy, creating a new variant. Due to the additional gene copies, polyploidy has a significant effect on cell size, which makes cells bigger overall. The colour of the flour, the size, and the form of the blossom may all be altered using polyploidy. Crop diversity is possible thanks to polyploidy.

 

Read More-

     

     

    Leave a Reply