(a) Mixed farming: In organic agriculture system, one strives for appropriate diversification, which ideally means mixed farming, or the integration of crop and livestock production on the farm. In this way, cyclic processes and interactions in the agro-ecosystem can be optimised, like using crop residues in animal husbandry and manure for crop production. Diversification of species biotypes and land use as a means to optimize the stability of the agro-ecosystem is another way to indicate the mixed farming concept. The synergistic concept among plants, animals, soil and biosphere support this idea.
(b) Crop rotation: Within the mixed farm setting, crop rotation takes place as the second principle of organic agriculture. Besides, the classical rotation involving one crop per field per season, intercropping, mixed cropping and under sowing are other options to optimize interactions. In addition to plant functions, other important advantages such as weed suppression, reduction in soil-borne insect pests and diseases, complimentary in nutrient demand, nutrient catching and soil covering can be mentioned.
(c) Organic cycle optimisation: Each field, farm, or region contains a given quantity of nutrients. Management should be used in such a way that optimal use is made of this finite amount. This means that nutrients should be recycled and used a number of times in different forms. Second, care should be taken that only a minimum amount of nutrients actually leave the system so that ‘import’ nutrients can be restricted. Third, the quantity of nutrients available to plants and animals can be increased within the system by activating the edaphon, resulting in increased weathering of parent material.