Quality of Agricultural Produce Point Wise Notes For Competitive Exam

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Roughages are consumed in large quantities by the animals.

• Important source of roughages is fodder and crop residues.

Fodders are high in nutritive value compared to crop residues.

• Digestible crude protein content is higher in leguminous fodder than non-leguminous roughages.

Haulms of groundnut are important leguminous roughage with high protein.

• Crude protein digestibility is higher in legume straws than in non-leguminous forages.

• Leguminous forages can be used as nitrogen supplement to improve utilization of low grade roughages.

Lignin present in grasses is more inhibitory to digestion than legume lignin.

Groundnut haulms contains less protein than Lucerne but more fat and nitrogen free extract.

• Crude protein digestibility is highest in mustard cake (86.9%).

Fibre content in food grains helps in reducing blood glucose levels and improves digestibility.

Anti-oxidants have the capability to trap free radicals.

• The radical trapping antioxidant values are in the order of sunflower > corn > groundnut > olive.

• The highest radical trapping antioxidant value in sunflower is due to very high amount of alphatocopherol.

Olive oil, because of the low content of alphatocopherol, has a low radical-trapping capacity approximately one-third that of sunflower.

Polyphenol and phytic acid are the antinutrients present in wheat, maize and sorghum.

Oxalate is one of the important anti-nutritional factors and it is found as calcium oxalate in soybeans.

• Phytic acid, the major storage form of P in seeds is believed to have negative impact on nutritional quality.

• The maximum permissible limit of aflatoxin B is 4 µg/kg in European countries and 30 µg/kg in most of the countries.

• The safe limit for cadmium content is 0.3 µg/kg.

Rice is a high energy or high calorie food.

• Rice contains less protein than wheat.

• Protein content of milled rice is around 6 to 7 per cent.

• The fat content of rice is low (2.0 to 2.5 %) and much of the fat is lost during milling.

• Rice has a low percentage of calcium.

• In milling of rice embryo and aleurone layer are removed.

• In rice loss of nutrients can be avoided by parboiling process.

Groundnut lacks vitamin A and vitamin B12.

• Wheat contains more protein than other cereals.

• Wheat has relatively high content of niacin and thiamine.

• Wheat protein has characteristic substance gluten essential for bakers.

Maize grain contains 10 % protein, 4 % oil, 70 % carbohydrate, 2.3 % fibre, 1.4% albuminoides, 1.4 % ash.

• Maize protein zein is deficient in tryptophan and lysine.

Quality protein maize (QPM) is a high-lysine, high tryptophan variety.

Lysine content of Quality protein maize is 3.7 to 4.2 g/100 g protein compared to 2.6 to 3.1 g/100 g protein in normal maize, but lower than the FAO recommendation of 5.0 g/100g protein.

• Maize is deficient in lysine, isoleucine and tryptophane.

• Maize is low in calcium and fairly high in phosphorus.

Maize ranks below wheat and sorghum but considerably above rice in nutrition.

• Groundnut is a good source of all vitamins except B12.

Soybean protein is not an ideal protein because it is deficient in the essential aminoacid methionine.

Raw soybean meal contains digestion inhibitor and lectins.

Sunflower oil is a rich source (64%) of linoleic acid which helps in washing out cholesterol deposition in the coronary arteries of the heart and thus it is good for heart patients.

• Sunflower oil cake contains 40-44 % high quality protein.

Legumes are good source of phosphorus and calcium.

• Most potent natural source of tocopherol is vegetable oils.

Crude oil contains more tocopherol than refined oil.

Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and other species.

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